Suku bangsa Austronesia

Bangsa Austronesia[43][44] atau suku-suku pemakai rumpun bahasa Austronesia[45] adalah sebuah etnolinguistik atau gabungan berbagai etnis besar di benua Asia (khususnya Asia Tenggara), sebagian Oceania dan sebagian Afrika yang memakai rumpun bahasa-bahasa dari keluarga Austronesia. Mereka meliputi penduduk asli Taiwan: kebanyakan kelompok etnisnya berada di Filipina, Malaysia, Timor Leste, Indonesia, Brunei, Kepulauan Cocos (Keeling), Madagaskar, Mikronesia, dan Polinesia, serta suku Melayu di Singapura, suku bangsa Polinesia dari Selandia Baru dan Hawaii, dan orang non-Papua di Melanesia. Mereka juga ditemukan di kawasan Pattani di Thailand, kawasan Cham di Vietnam dan Kamboja, dan kawasan Hainan di Tiongkok, sebagian Sri Lanka, selatan Myanmar, ujung selatan Afrika Selatan, Suriname, dan sebagian kecil Kepulauan Andaman dan Pulau Natal serta Australia. Kawasan yang diduduki oleh suku bangsa pemakai bahasa Austronesia secara kolektif dikenal sebagai Austronesia. Kebanyakan orang Austronesia memiliki penampilan serupa seperti kulit berwarna muda sampai coklat dengan rambut lurus, keriting atau bergelombang.

Orang Austronesia
Tao1.jpg
Jumlah populasi
± 400.000.000
Daerah dengan populasi signifikan
 Indonesiaca. 260.6 juta (2016)[1]
 Filipinaca. 100.9 juta (2015)[2]
 Madagascarca. 24 juta (2016)[3]
 Malaysiaca. 19.2 juta (2017)[4]
 Thailandca. 3.1 juta (2010)[5]
 Papua Nuginica. 1.3 juta[butuh rujukan]
 Timor Lesteca. 1.2 juta (2015)[6]
 Selandia Baruca. 855,000 (2006)[7][8][9]
 Singapuraca. 700,000 (2009)[10]
 Taiwanca. 540,000 (2016)[11]
 Kepulauan Solomonca. 478,000 (2005)[butuh rujukan]
 Fijica. 456,000 (2005)[12]
 Brunei Darussalamca. 355,000 (2010)[13]
 Vanuatuca. 272,000 [14][15]
 Kambojaca. 250,000 (2010)[16]
 Polinesia Prancisca. 230,000 (2017)[17][18]
 Samoaca. 195,000 (2016)[19]
 Vietnamca. 162,000 (2009)[20]
 Guamca. 150,000 (2010)[21]
 Hawaiica. 140,652–401,162[22] (bergantung pada definisi)
 Kiribatica. 110,000 (2015)[23]
 Kaledonia Baruca. 106,000 (2019)[24][25]
 Federasi Mikronesiaca. 102,000[14][15][26]
 Tongaca. 100,000 (2016)[27]
 Surinameca. 93,000 (2017)[28]
 Kepulauan Marshallca. 72,000 (2015)[29]
 Samoa Amerikaca. 55,000 (2010)[30]
 Sri Lankaca. 40,189 (2012)[31]
 Australia
(Kepulauan Toress Straits)
ca. 38,700 (2016)[32]
 Myanmarca. 31,600 (2019)[33][34]
 Kepulauan Mariana Utaraca. 19,000[35]
 Palauca. 16,500 (2011)[14][15][36]
 Wallis dan Futunaca. 11,600 (2018)[37]
 Nauruca. 11,200 (2011)[38]
 Tuvaluca. 11,000 (2012)[39][40]
 Kepulauan Cookca. 9,300 (2010)[41]
 Chile
(Pulau Rapa Nui)
ca. 2,290 (2002)[42]
 Niueca. 1.620[14][15]
Bahasa
Rumpun Bahasa Austronesia
Agama
Islam, Kristen, Kepercayaan Tradisional/Agama Asli, Buddha, Hindu, Lainnya

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Proyeksi penduduk Indonesia/Indonesia Population Projection 2010–2035 (PDF), Badan Pusat Statistik, ISBN 978-979-064-606-3 
  2. ^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". Philippine Statistics Authority. Republic of the Philippines. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020. 
  3. ^ "Population, total". Data. World Bank Group. 2017. Diakses tanggal 29 April 2018. 
  4. ^ "Malaysia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Diakses tanggal 29 April 2018. 
  5. ^ "Population movement in the Pacific: A perspective on future prospects". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 7 February 2013. Diakses tanggal 22 July 2013. 
  6. ^ "2015 Census shows population growth moderating". Government of Timor-Leste. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 7 February 2016. Diakses tanggal 24 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "Population movement in the Pacific: A perspective on future prospects". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 7 February 2013. Diakses tanggal 22 July 2013. 
  8. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/national-highlights/2006-census-quickstats-national-highlights.htm?page=para025Master
  9. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/62F419D4-5946-407A-9553-DA9E7A847622/0/09ethnicgroup.xls
  10. ^ About 13.6% of Singaporeans are of Malay descent. In addition to these, many Chinese Singaporeans are also of mixed Austronesian descent. See also "Key Indicators of the Resident Population" (PDF). Singapore Department of Statistics. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 4 July 2007. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2007. 
  11. ^ Ramzy, Austin (1 August 2016). "Taiwan's President Apologizes to Aborigines for Centuries of Injustice". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020. 
  12. ^ "FIJI TODAY 2005 / 2006" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 3 April 2007. Diakses tanggal 23 March 2007. 
  13. ^ "Brunei". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. July 2018. Diakses tanggal 10 April 2019. 
  14. ^ a b c d ""World Population prospects – Population Division"". population.un.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). Departemen Urusan Ekonomi dan Sosial Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, Divisi Kependudukan. 2019. Diakses tanggal 9 November 2019. 
  15. ^ a b c d ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (Data khusus yang diperoleh melalui situs web) (dalam bahasa Inggris). Departemen Urusan Ekonomi dan Sosial Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, Divisi Kependudukan. 2019. Diakses tanggal 9 November 2019. 
  16. ^ Joshua Project. "Cham, Western in Cambodia". Joshua Project. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2019. 
  17. ^ "La population légale au 17 août 2017 : 275 918 habitants". ISPF. Diakses tanggal 16 February 2018. 
  18. ^ Most recent ethnic census, in 1988. "Frontières ethniques et redéfinition du cadre politique à Tahiti" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 31 May 2011.  Approximately 87.7% of the total population (275,918) are of unmixed or mixed Polynesian descent.
  19. ^ "Population & Demography Indicator Summary". Samoa Bureau of Statistics. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 3 April 2019. Diakses tanggal 25 June 2018. 
  20. ^ the 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results 2009 Census Diarsipkan 14 November 2012 di Wayback Machine., Hà Nội, 6-2010. Table 5, page 134
  21. ^ "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. US Census Bureau. Diakses tanggal 11 August 2017. 
  22. ^ "U.S. 2000 Census". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 18 November 2011. Diakses tanggal 23 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "Kiribati Stats at a Glance". Kiribati National Statistics Office. Ministry of Finance & Economic Development, Government of Kiribati. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 8 January 2017. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020. 
  24. ^ "La Nouvelle-Calédonie compte 271 407 habitants en 2019". Institut de la statistique et des études économiques. ISEE. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020. 
  25. ^ "Recensement de la population en Nouvelle-Calédonie en 2009". ISEE. Diakses tanggal 17 January 202039.1% if the population are native Kanak 
  26. ^ Approximately 90.4% of the total population (112.640) is native Pacific Islander.
  27. ^ [1]. Tonga 2016 Census Results (11 November 2016).
  28. ^ "Suriname". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Diakses tanggal 29 April 2018. 
  29. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: MARSHALL ISLANDS". CIA The World Factbook. 
  30. ^ "Archived copy". 2010 United States Census. census.gov. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 23 July 2012. Diakses tanggal 1 October 2018. 
  31. ^ "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population& Housing, 2011. Department of Census& Statistics, Sri Lanka. 
  32. ^ "3238.0.55.001 – Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 August 2018. Diakses tanggal 27 December 2019. 
  33. ^ Joshua Project. "Malay in Myanmar (Burma)". Joshua Project. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2019. 
  34. ^ Joshua Project. "Moken, Salon in Myanmar (Burma)". Joshua Project. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2019. 
  35. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 12 February 2020. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020.  Approximately 34.9% of the total population (53,883) are native Pacific Islander
  36. ^ Approximately 92.2% of the total population (17.907) is of Austronesian descent.
  37. ^ INSEE. "Les populations légales de Wallis et Futuna en 2018". Diakses tanggal 7 April 2019. 
  38. ^ "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF). Nauru Bureau of Statistics. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 24 September 2015. Diakses tanggal 9 June 2015. 
  39. ^ "Population of communities in Tuvalu". world-statistics.org. 11 April 2012. Diakses tanggal 20 March 2016. 
  40. ^ "Population of communities in Tuvalu". Thomas Brinkhoff. 11 April 2012. Diakses tanggal 20 March 2016. 
  41. ^ "Australia-Oceania ::: COOK ISLANDS". CIA The World Factbook. 
  42. ^ "RAPA NUI IW 2019". IWGIA. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2020.  Approximately 60% of the population of total population of Rapa Nui (3,765) is of native descent.
  43. ^ Gray, RD; Drummond, AJ; Greenhill, SJ (2009). "Language Phylogenies Reveal Expansion Pulses and Pauses in Pacific Settlement". Science. 323 (5913): 479–483. doi:10.1126/science.1166858. PMID 19164742. 
  44. ^ Diamond, JM (2000). "Taiwan's gift to the world". Nature. 403 (6771): 709–710. doi:10.1038/35001685. PMID 10693781. 
  45. ^ According to the anthropologist Wilhelm Solheim II: "I emphasize again, as I have done in many other articles, that 'Austronesian' is a linguistic term and is the name of a super language family. It should never be used as a name for a people, genetically speaking, or a culture. To refer to people who speak an Austronesian language the phrase 'Austronesian-speaking people' should be used." Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages. (January 2006).

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