Bandar Udara Internasional Ninoy Aquino

Bandar Udara di Filipina

Bandar Udara Internasional Ninoy Aquino (Filipina: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) atau BUINA (/ˈnə/, locally /nɑː.ˈ.jə/), Bandar Udara Internasional Manila (IATA: MNLICAO: RPLL) demikian juga kode nama Lapangan Nichols (Nichols), merupakan nama bandara yang terletak di Manila, Filipina. Bandara ini merupakan bandara terbesar di Filipina. Bandara ini terletak di perbatasan Kota Pasay dan Kota Parañaque. Pada tahun 2007 bandara ini melayani 20.467.627 penumpang.

Bandar Udara Internasional Ninoy Aquino

Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino International Airport logo.svg
Ninoy Aquino International Airport aerial view.jpg
Informasi
JenisPublik/Militer
PemilikPemerintah Filipina
PengelolaManila International Airport Authority
MelayaniGreater Manila Area
LokasiParañaque dan Pasay, Metro Manila, Filipina
Maskapai penghubung
Zona waktuPHT (UTC+08:00)
Ketinggian dpl23 m / 75 kaki
Koordinat14°30′30″N 121°01′11″E / 14.50833°N 121.01972°E / 14.50833; 121.01972Koordinat: 14°30′30″N 121°01′11″E / 14.50833°N 121.01972°E / 14.50833; 121.01972
Situs webwww.miaa.gov.ph
Peta
Map of Ninoy Aquino International Airport Complex
Map of Ninoy Aquino International Airport Complex
MNL is located in Manila
MNL
MNL
Location in the Philippines
MNL is located in Filipina
MNL
MNL
MNL (Filipina)
MNL is located in Asia Tenggara
MNL
MNL
MNL (Asia Tenggara)
Landasan pacu
Arah Panjang Permukaan
m kaki
06/24 3,737 12,261 Aspal
13/31 2,258 7,408 Aspal
Statistik (2018)
Penumpang45,082,544
Kenaikan 6,79%
Total Penerbangan Inteenasional (2017)108,995
Kenaikan 19,60%
Total Penerbangan Domestik (2017)149,371
Penurunan −3,76%
Kargo (2015) (dalam ton)460,135,15
Kenaikan 12,1%

TerminalSunting

Terminal 1Sunting

 
Check-in hall di NAIA Terminal 1

The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank. The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin's L.V. Locsin and Associates.[4]

In 1974, the detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. The terminal was completed in 1981 and had a size of 67,000 square meters with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year.[5] It currently serves all non-Philippine Airlines and non-Cebu Pacific international flights. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.[4]


The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%,[4] but improvements to the airport increased its capacity to 6 million passengers yearly.[6] It has 18 air bridges and services 33 airlines (as of May 2011). Interestingly enough, the building does not have a Gate 8 and a Gate 13. Compared with international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 has consistently ranked at the bottom due to limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and crowding (the Terminal has been operating above designed capacity for decades now).[7] In this regard, transport authorities plan to give Terminal 1 a makeover; the plans were approved by President Benigno Aquino III. The makeover and upgrade includes the expansion of the arrival area, addition of parking spaces, and improvement of other terminal facilities.[8]

The Transportation and Communications Department previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 would be rehabilitated into an "Airport City", with the intention of Cebu Pacific Air to convert Terminal 1 into an exclusive terminal for their aircraft.[9] This terminal handles all international flights except those operated by Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines, PAL Express, Zest Airways, and All Nippon Airways.

The rehabilitation of Terminal 1 will be completed by November 2014.[10]

Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)Sunting

Terminal kedua, NAIA-2, yang terletak di Old MIA Road, selesai pada tahun 1998 dan mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1999. Teminal itu dinamakan Centennial Terminal dalam rangka memperingati seratus tahun (centennial) deklarasi kemerdekaan Filipina. Terminal yang berluas 75.000 meter persegi awalnya dirancang oleh Aéroports de Paris menjadi terminal domestik, tetapi desain kemudian dimodifikasi untuk mengakomodasi penerbangan internasional.[11] Terminal ini memiliki kapasitas 2,5 juta penumpang per tahun di sayap internasional dan 5 juta di sayap nasionalnya, dimungkinkan untuk menampung sembilan juta penumpang per tahun jika diperlukan.[11]

Terminal 2 secara eksklusif digunakan oleh Philippine Airlines untuk penerbangan domestik dan internasional. Terminal ini dibagi menjadi dua sayap: Sayap Utara, untuk penerbangan internasional, dan Sayap Selatan, yang menangani operasi domestik. Saat ini Terminal 2 memiliki 12 garbarata. Ada beberapa kafe dan restoran yang tersebar di seluruh pos-keamanan terminal. Ada juga bagian bebas bea kecil di sayap utara. Kebutuhan untuk dua terminal lainnya diusulkan oleh Rencana Induk Ulasan dari bandara yang dilakukan pada tahun 1989 oleh Aéroports de Paris (ADP). Penelitian ini difasilitasi melalui hibah dari Pemerintah Prancis. Tinjauan tersebut menelan biaya 2,9 juta franc Prancis dan telah disampaikan kepada Pemerintah Filipina untuk evaluasi pada tahun 1990.[12]

In 1991, the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Philippine government, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12 billion yen soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998.

Terminal 3Sunting

The third terminal of the airport, Terminal 3 or NAIA-3, is the newest and biggest terminal in the NAIA complex, wherein construction started in 1997. The terminal is one of the most controversial projects in the Philippines in that the government has become involved with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.[13] The terminal 3 is built on a 63.5-hectare lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of 182,500 m², having a total length of 1.2 kilometers. A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars while the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.

Its apron area has a size of 147,400 m², 34 air bridges, 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at any given time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, with 300 kilometers of fiber optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.[11]

The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008. All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010,[14] however domestic carriers Cebu Pacific and Airphil Express (then Air Philippines) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, with the exception of All Nippon Airways being the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 started in February 27, 2011.

Terminal 4 (Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal)Sunting

 
NAIA Terminal 4

The Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal, also known as NAIA Terminal 4,[15] is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by AirAsia Zest and Tigerair Philippines, among others. Although it's intended to be a domestic airport, AirAsia Zest hosts most of its international flights as well. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six check-in counters are located in the terminal. The departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the domestic passenger terminal.[16] The Domestic Terminal on the old Airport Road was built in 1948 and is located near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.

Airbus A380Sunting

NAIA is one two airports in the Philippines that meet the infrastructure requirements for the Airbus A380 (the other is Clark International Airport). As of July 2013, no commercial flights are operating using this aircraft however it is an airport that provides MRO services conducted by Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 11, 2007, NAIA hosted the début of the Airbus A380 in the Philippines, after test aircraft MSN009 (registered as F-WWEA) landed on Runway 24. The test flight demonstrated that the A380 could land on existing runways in Asia and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.[17]

MaskapaiSunting

PenumpangSunting

MaskapaiTujuan
Air China Beijing—Ibu Kota
Air Juan Busuanga
Air Niugini Port Moreseby
indonesia AirAsia Kuala Lumpur–Internasional,Manado
AirAsia Philippines Bangkok–Don Mueang, Cagayan de Oro, Caticlan, Cebu, Davao, Denpasar/Bali, Guangzhou, Kota Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Iloilo, Jakarta—Soekarno—Hatta, Kalibo, Kaohsiung, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–Internasional, Makau, Puerto Princesa, Seoul—Incheon, Shanghai—Pudong, Shenzhen, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Taipei—Taoyuan
AirSWIFT Basco, El Nido, Sicogon
All Nippon Airways Tokyo—Haneda, Tokyo—Narita
Asiana Airlines Seoul—Incheon
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Bacolod, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok—Suvarnabhumi, Beijing—Ibu Kota, Busan, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caticlan, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, Denpasar/Bali, Dipolog, Dubai—Internasional, Dumaguete, Fukuoka, General Santos, Guam, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kota Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Iloilo, Jakarta—Soekarno—Hatta, Kalibo, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–Internasional, Legazpi, Makau, Nagoya—Centrair, Osaka—Kansai, Ozamiz, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Roxas, Seoul—Incheon, Shanghai—Pudong, Siem Reap, Singapura, Surabaya, Sydney, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Taipei—Taoyuan, Tokyo—Narita, Tuguegarao, Xiamen, Zamboanga
Cebu Pacific
dioperasikan oleh Cebgo
Basco, Busuanga, Caticlan, Cauayan, Kalibo, Legazpi, Marinduque, Masbate, Naga, San Jose (Mindoro), Siargao, Tablas, Virac
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Taipei—Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai—Pudong
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou
Delta Air Lines Tokyo—Narita
Emirates Dubai—Internasional
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Hong Kong
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
EVA Air Taipei—Taoyuan
Gulf Air Bahrain
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo—Narita
Jeju Air Seoul—Incheon
Jetstar Asia Airways Osaka—Kansai, Singapura
Jetstar Japan Nagoya—Centrair, Osaka—Kansai, Tokyo—Narita
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul—Incheon
Kuwait Airways Kuwait
Lucky Air Musiman: Kunming
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–Internasional
Oman Air Muskat
Philippine Airlines Auckland, Bangkok—Suvarnabhumi, Beijing—Ibu Kota, Brisbane, Busan, Cebu, Dammam, Davao, Denpasar/Bali, Doha, Dubai—Internasional, Fukuoka, General Santos, Guam, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kota Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Jakarta—Soekarno—Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–Internasional, London—Heathrow, Los Angeles, Makau, Melbourne, Nagoya—Centrair, Nanning, New Delhi, New York—JFK, Osaka—Kansai, Phnom Penh, Port Moresby, Puerto Princesa, Quanzhou, Riyadh, San Francisco, Seoul—Incheon, Shanghai—Pudong, Singapura, Sydney, Taipei—Taoyuan, Tokyo—Haneda, Tokyo—Narita, Toronto—Pearson, Vancouver, Xiamen
Charter: Jeju, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok
Philippine Airlines
dioperasikan oleh PAL Express
Bacolod, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caticlan, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Iloilo, Kalibo, Laoag, Legazpi, Ozamiz, Puerto Princesa, Roxas, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Tuguegarao, Zamboanga
Musiman: Saipan
Platinum Skies Vigan
Qantas Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Saudia Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh
Scoot Singapura
Singapore Airlines Singapura
SkyJet Basco, Busuanga, Caticlan, Siargao
Charter: Catarman, Tuguegarao
Thai Airways Bangkok—Suvarnabhumi
Turkish Airlines Istanbul
United Airlines Guam, Koror
Musiman: Chuuk
Xiamen Airlines Quanzhou, Xiamen

KargoSunting

MaskapaiTujuan
Asiana Cargo Seoul—Incheon
China Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Penang, Taipei—Taoyuan
DHL Aviation
dioperasikan oleh Air Hong Kong
Hong Kong
EVA Air Cargo Taipei—Taoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai—Pudong, Shenzhen
Korean Air Cargo Penang, Seoul—Incheon
MASKargo Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Taipei—Taoyuan
ULS Airlines CargoIstanbul—Atatürk

Transportasi daratSunting

Antar-terminalSunting

The Manila International Airport Authority runs a shuttle bus system which connects all four terminals for the convenience of passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. Shuttle buses run every fifteen minutes during daytime hours, but passengers are required to clear immigration and customs to use the system.

Philippine Airlines operates an airside shuttle service between Terminals 2 and 3 for passengers connecting to onward PAL Express flights and vice-versa.

Koneksi eksternalSunting

Bus dan jeepneySunting

Nine bus routes serve the airport from various points in Metro Manila: eight which go through Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), and one via Circumferential Road 5 (C-5):

All four terminals are also served by local jeepney routes serving Parañaque and Pasay.

KeretaSunting

 
Stasiun Kereta Api Nichols dengan jalan layang di atas mengarah ke bandara

The airport is connected, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways both serve the airport complex. An MIAA-operated shuttle bus also connects Terminal 3 to the Taft Avenue MRT Station.

In the future, with the extension of the existing Yellow Line, a new station, Manila International Airport station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT. A four-station spur extension of the Yellow Line, directly connecting Terminal 3 to Baclaran, is also proposed.

Jalan rayaSunting

The NAIA Expressway or NAIA Skyway connects NAIA/Nichols Exit of Metro Manila Skyway and Andrews Avenue in front of Terminal 3. It would soon be extended to Domestic Road, linking with Terminal 4 (Domestic Terminal), and NAIA Road, linking with Terminal 2, before reaching Roxas Boulevard and Coastal Road. Terminal 3 is served by the Nichols Exit of South Luzon Expressway, while Terminal 1 is served by Ninoy Aquino Avenue from Roxas Boulevard-NAIA Road.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ "Airport Statistics" (PDF). Manila International Airport Authority. Diakses tanggal May 19, 2018. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  2. ^ "Busiest Airports in 2016". Philippine Air Space (Blog). Diakses tanggal April 3, 2017. 
  3. ^ "MIAA reports significant hike in air travellers traffic". Manila Standard. Diakses tanggal January 18, 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c Airport: Terminal 1[pranala nonaktif permanen] Manila International Airport Authority Diarsipkan 2006-04-14 di Wayback Machine. Accessed September 7, 2006
  5. ^ "TERMINAL 1". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-10-14. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-17. 
  6. ^ "Salinan arsip". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2013-02-10. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-17. 
  7. ^ Reviews of Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport with Passenger reviews about Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport standards airlinequality.com.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ This has yet to occur or commence.Cebu Pacific eyeing 'Airport City'--DOTC – Inquirer.net, Philippine News for Filipinos globalnation.inquirer.net.
  10. ^ "RENOVATIONS OF NAIA TERMINAL 1 EXPECTED TO COMPLETE BY NOVEMBER 2014". Philippine Flight Network. Diakses tanggal 21 November 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c airport-tech
  12. ^ Airport : Terminal 1[pranala nonaktif permanen] Manila International Airport Authority Diarsipkan 2006-04-14 di Wayback Machine. Diakses 7 September 2006
  13. ^ GMANews.TV – NAIA 3 inspected for Monday opening – report – Nation – Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs – Latest Philippine News – BETA. gmanes.tv. Accessed June 28, 2008.
  14. ^ Bright future for rural banks – Business Mirror Accessed May 14, 2009.
  15. ^ "About NAIA Terminal 4". Manila International Airport Authority. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2014-02-22. Diakses tanggal June 28, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Domestic Terminal". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2008-04-25. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-17. 
  17. ^ AFP: Airbus super jumbo visits Philippines to show it is ready for Asia, Agence France-Presse, October 11, 2007

Pranala luarSunting