Daftar Penguasa Persia

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(Dialihkan dari Shah Persia)

Daftar penguasa Persia (Iran) di bawah ini disesuaikan dengan zaman Monarki dan dinasti Persia (Iran) hingga menjadi Republik.

Sesuai dengan zaman dan dinastiSunting

Daftar Penguasa Kekaisaran Persia AkhemeniyahSunting

Nama Resmi Gelar Berkuasa Masa Hidup
Koresh Agung Syahansyah Persia,
Raja Āryāvarta,
Raja Anshan,
Raja Media,
Raja Babel,
Raja Sumeria dan Akkadia,
Raja Empat Penjuru Dunia
559 SM – 530 SM 600 SM – 530 SM
Kambisus II Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
530 SM – 522 SM ? - 521 SM
Bardiya Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
522 SM ? - 522 SM
Darius I Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
522 SM – 486 SM 550 SM – 486 SM
Ahasyweros I Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
486 SM – 465 SM 519 SM – 465 SM
Artahsasta I 'Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
465 SM – 424 SM
Ahasyweros II Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
424 SM
Darius II Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
423 SM – 404 SM
Artahsasta II Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
404 SM – 358 SM
Artaxsaca III Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
358 SM – 338 SM
Artahsasta IV Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
338 SM – 336 SM
Darius III Shahanshah Persia
Firaun Mesir
336 SM – 330 SM
Artahsasta V Shahanshah Persia 330 SM – 329 SM

Daftar Penguasa Kekaisaran Makedonia (Persia ditaklukan Aleksander Agung)Sunting

Daftar Penguasa Kekaisaran SeleukiaSunting

Raja Memerintah (SM)
Seleukos I Nikator Satrap 320–315, 312–305 SM

Raja 305–281 SM

Antiokhos I Soter memerintah bersama sejak 291 SM, memerintah sendirian 281–261 SM
Antiokhos II Theos 261–246 SM
Seleukos II Kallinikos 246–225 SM
Seleukos III Keraunus (atau Soter) 225–223 SM
Antiochus III yang Agung 223–187 SM
Seleukos IV Philopator 187–175 SM
Antiokhos IV Epiphanes 175–163 SM
Antiokhos V Eupator 163–161 SM
Demetrius I Soter 161–150 SM
Alexander I Balas 150–145 SM
Demetrius II Nicator pemerintahan bersama, 145–139 SM
Antiochus VI Dionysos (Epiphanes) 145–142 SM
Diodotus Tryphon 142–138 SM
Antiokhos VII Sidetes (Euergetes) 139–129 SM

Daftar Penguasa Kekaisaran Parthia/ArsakidSunting

Potret Gelar Nama Resmi Nama Lahir Masa Berkuasa Wafat
Dinasti Arsakid (247 SM – 228 M)
  Raja Arsak I Tiridates I atau Arsakes 247–211 BC 211 BC
  Raja Arsak II Artabanus I or Arsakes 211–185 BC[3] 185 BC
  Raja Arsakes III Phriapatius 185–170 BC[3] 170 BC
  Raja Arsakes IV Phraates I 170–167 BC[4] 167 BC
  Shahanshah, Rajadiraja, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene Arsakes V Mithridates I 167[4] –132 BC[5] 132 BC
  Shahanshah, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros Arsakes VI Phraates II 132–127 BC[5] 127 BC
  King Arsakes VII Artabanus II 127–126 BC[5] 126 BC
Shahanshah, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes Arsakes VIII Vologases(?)[5] 126–122 BC[5] 122 BC
Shahanshah, Shahanshah, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes IX Artabanus(?)[5] 122–121 BC 121 BC
  Shahanshah, Raja Agung, Epiphanes, Soter Arsakes X Mithridates II 121[6]–91 BC 91 BC
  Shahanshah, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator Arsakes XI Gotarzes I 91–87 BC 87 BC
Shahanshah, Theopator, Nicator Arsakes XII Artabanus(?)[4] 91–77? BC 77? BC
Shahanshah, Shahanshah of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes Arsakes XIII Mithridates[5] 88–67 BC 67 BC
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XIV Orodes I 80–75 BC 75 BC
  Shahanshah, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XV Sanatruces 77–70 BC 70 BC
Shahanshah, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes Arsakes XVI[4] Arsakes(?) or Vardanes(?) or Vonones(?) 77–66 BC 66 BC
  Shahanshah, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XVII Phraates III 70–57 BC 57 BC
Shahanshah, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XVIII[4] ? 66–63 BC 63 BC
  Shahanshah, Shahanshah of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene Arsakes XIX Mithridates III 65[4] –54 BC 54 BC
  Shahanshah, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes Arsakes XX Orodes II 57–38 BC 38 BC
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXI Pacorus I 50–38 BC 38 BC
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXII Phraates IV 38–2 BC 2 BC
Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos Arsakes XXIII Tiridates II 30–25 BC after 23 BC
? Arsakes XXIV Mithridates[7] 12–9 BC ?
  Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania Musa Musa 2 BC – 4 CE 4? CE
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXV Phraates V 2 BC – 4 CE 4 CE
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXVI Orodes III 4–6 6
  Shahanshah, Rajadiraja, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus, Raja Armenia Arsakes XXVII Vonones I 8–12 19
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXVIII Artabanus III 10–40 40
? Arsakes XXIX Tiridates III 35–36 ?
? Arsakes XXX Cinnamus 37 ?
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXI Gotarzes II 40–51 51
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXII Vardanes I 40–46 46
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXIII Vonones II ca. 45–51 51
? Arsakes XXXIV Mithridates[8] 49–50 ?
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Arsakes XXXV Vologases I 51–77 77
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXVI Vardanes II 55–58 ?
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXVII Vologases II 77–89/90 ?
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXVIII Pacorus II 77–115 115
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XXXIX Artabanus IV 80–81 ?
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XL Osroes I 89/90–130 130
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Raja Armenia Arsakes XLI Vologases III 105–148 148
  Shahanshah, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLII Parthamaspates 116–117 after 123
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLIII Mithridates IV ca. 130 – ca. 145 ca. 145
Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLIV[9] ? ca. 140 – ca. 140 ca. 140
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLV Vologases IV 148–191 191
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLVI Vologases V 191–208 208
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLVII Osroes II ca. 190 – ca. 195 ?
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLVIII Vologases VI 208–228 228
  Shahanshah, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsakes XLIX Artabanus V 213–226 226
Raja, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Raja Armenia Arsakes L Tiridates IV[10] 217–222 ?

Penguasa terakhir Parthia digulingkan oleh Ardashir dari Sasaniyah.

Daftar Penguasa Kekaisaran Iran SasaniyahSunting

Potret Gelar Nama Resmi Nama Lahir Lahir Berkuasa Mati
Wangsa Sasan
  Shahanshah[11] Ardashir I 180 28 April 224 – February 242 February 242
  Shahanshah Shapur I 215 12 April 240 – May 270 May 270
  Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah[12] Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir ? May 270 – June 271 June 271
  Shahanshah, Gilanshah Bahram I ? June 271 – September 274 September 274
  Shahanshah Bahram II ? September 274 – 293 293
  Shahanshah, Sakanshah Bahram III ? 293 293
  Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah Narseh I ? 293–302 302
  Shahanshah Hormizd II ? 302–309 309
Shahanshah Adhur Narseh ? 309 309
  Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf[13] Shapur II 309 309–379 379
  Shahanshah Ardashir II 309/310 379–383 383
  Shahanshah Shapur III ? 383 – December 388 December 388
  Shahanshah, Kirmanshah Bahram IV ? December 388 – 399 399
  Shahanshah Yazdegerd I 363 399 – 21 January 420 21 January 420
  Shahanshah Bahram V 406 21 January 420 – 20 June 438 20 June 438
  Shahanshah Yazdegerd II ? 20 June 438 – 15 December 457 15 December 457
  Shahanshah Hormizd III 399 457–459 459
  Shahanshah Peroz I 459 457 – January 484 January 484
  Shahanshah Balash ? February 484 – 488 488
  Shahanshah Kavadh I 449 488–496 13 September 531
  Shahanshah Djamasp ? 496–498 502
  Shahanshah Kavadh I 449 498 – 13 September 531 13 September 531
  Shahanshah, Anusyirwan yang Adil Khosrau I 500 13 September 531 – 31 January 579 31 January 579
  Shahanshah Hormizd IV 540 31 January 579 – 5 September 590 5 September 590
  Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570 September 590 – September 590 February 28, 628
Wangsa Mihran
  Shahanshah, Chubineh Bahram VI Mehrbandak ? September – 590 January 591 591
Wangsa Sasan
  Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570 January 591 – 25 February 628 February 28, 628
Wangsa Ispahbudhan
  Shahanshah Vistahm ? 591 – 596 or 600 596 or 600
Wangsa Sasan
  Shahanshah Kavadh II Shiruyah ? 25 February 628 – 15 September 628 15 September 628
  Shahanshah Ardashir III 621 15 September 628 – 27 April 629 27 April 629
Wangsa Mihran
  Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz Shahrbaraz ? 27 April 629 – 17 June 629 17 June 629
Wangsa Sasan
  Shahanshah Khosrau III ? 630 630
  Shahbanu[14] Borandukht 590 17 June 629 – 16 June 630 (First reign)

631 – 632 (Second reign)

632
Shahanshah Shapur-i Shahrvaraz ? 630 ?
Shahanshah Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh ? 630 630
  Shahbanu Azarmidokht ? 630–631 631
  Shahanshah Khosrau IV Khurrazadh ? 631 631
Wangsa Ispahbudhan
  Shahanshah Farrokh Hormizd ? 630–631 631
Wangsa Sasan
  Shahanshah Hormizd VI ? 630–631 631
  Shahanshah Yazdegerd III 624 16 June 632–651 651

Iran Persia dibawah Kekhalifahan IslamSunting

Kekhalifahan RasyidinSunting

Nama
Berkuasa
Gelar Rentang usia Catatan
ʿUmar
bin Khattab

عمر بن الخطاب
23 Agustus 634 (13 H) – 3 November 644 (23 H)
(10 tahun, 73 hari)
Khalifah, Amirul Mukminin 584
 –
3 November 644
Kekaisaran Sasaniyah berhasil ditaklukan pada tahun 644 M
'Utsman
bin 'Affan

عثمان بن عفان
11 November 644 (23 H) – 20 Juni 656 (35 H)
(11 tahun, 223 hari)
Khalifah, Amirul Mukminin 579
 –
20 Juni 656
'Ali
bin Abi Thalib

علي بن أبي طالب
20 Juni 656 (35 H) – 29 Januari 661 (40 H)
(4 tahun, 224 hari)
Khalifah, Amirul Mukminin 15 September 601
 –
29 Januari 661

Daftar Penguasa Dinasti SafawiyahSunting

Gambar Nama Resmi Gelar Masa Hidup Masa Kekuasaan Agama
  Ismail I Sultan, Shahanshah, Khan
Kagan-i Suleyman shan
1487-1524 1502-1524 Islam Syiah
  Tahmasp I Shahanshah, Sahib-i-Qiran,
Sultan bar Salatin,
Kagan-i Suleyman shan
1514-1576 1525-1576 Islam Syiah
  Ismail II Shahanshah, Khan 1537-1577 1576-1577 Islam Sunni
  Mohammad I Shahanshah, Sultan 1532-1596 1577-1587 Islam Syiah
  Abbas I Yang Agung Shahanshah, Sultan 1571-1629 1587-1629 Islam Syiah
  Safi Shahanshah 1611-1642 1629-1642 Islam Syiah
  Abbas II Shahanshah 1632-1666 1642-1666 Islam Syiah
  Suleiman I Shahanshah 1645-1694 1666-1694 Islam Syiah
  Sultan Husayn Shahanshah, Sultan 1668-1726 1694-1722 Islam Syiah
Pemberontakan Dinasti Hotak dari Afganistan
  Mahmud Hotak Shah Iran, Emir Afghanistan 1722-1725 1697-1725 Islam Sunni
  Ashraf Hotak Shah Iran, Emir Afghanistan 1725-1729 ?-1730 Islam Sunni
Restorasi Safawi
Tahmasp II Shah 1704-1740 1729–1732 Islam Syiah
Abbas III Shah 1732-1740 1732–1736 Islam Syiah

Daftar Penguasa Dinasti QajarSunting

Nama Gelar Masa Hidup Mulai berkuasa Akhir Berkuasa
1   Mohammad Khan Qajar Khan[15]
Shah[15]
1742–1797 Maret 1796[16] 17 June 1797
2 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Shahanshah[15]
Khaqan[15]
1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834
3   Mohammad Shah Qajar Khaqan putra Khaqan[15] 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848
4   Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Zell'ollah (Bayangan Allah[di Bumi])[15]
Qebleh-ye 'ālam (Poros semesta)[15]
Islampanah (Pelindung Islam)[15]
1831–1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896
5   Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar Shahanshah 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907
6   Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Shahanshah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909
7   Ahmad Shah Qajar Shahanshah, Sultan 1898–1930 16 July 1909 31 October 1925

Daftar Penguasa Dinasti PahlaviSunting

Potret Gelar Nama Resmi Nama Personal Lahir Berkuasa Kematian Hubungan keluarga Catatan
Dinasti Pahlavi (1925–1979)
  Shahanshah Reza Shah Reza Khan (kemudian Pahlavi) 15 Maret 1878 15 Desember 1925 – 16 September 1941 26 Juli 1944 anak dari Abbas Ali dilengserkan selama Invasi Inggris-Soviet ke Iran
  Shahanshah Ariamehr Mohammad Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 26 Oktober 1919 16 September 1941 – 11 Februari 1979 27 Juli 1980 anak dari Reza Shah digulingkan dalam Revolusi Iran

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ As part of the compromise in Babylon after Alexander the Great’s death, it was agreed that Philip would be joint king with Roxanne’s unborn child, should it prove to be male. Hence Philip was sole king for several months until Alexander IV was born, and Alexander too was sole king from Philip’s murder in 317 BC to his own death. Neither had any effective power during this period; Philip was mentally infirm and Alexander was under age.
  2. ^ Perdiccas (And his immediate Regency successors) did not take the title of Regent, (Epitropos) but instead styled himself 'Manager' (Epimelêtês), however his position was that of Regent in all but name.
  3. ^ a b Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC" Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  6. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC"
  7. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  8. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  9. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (ca. AD 140)
  10. ^ See: Tiridates III (ca. AD 224 – 228?)
  11. ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings"
  12. ^ "The great king of Armenians"
  13. ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders"
  14. ^ "Queen"
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Amanat, Abbas (1997), Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896, Comparative studies on Muslim societies, I. B. Tauris, hlm. 10, ISBN 9781860640971 
  16. ^ Perry, J. R. (1984). "ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR". Dalam Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. I/6. hlm. 602–605. in Ramażān, 1210/ March, 1796, he was officially crowned shah of Iran.