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Kemaharajaan Britania

(Dialihkan dari British Raj)

Kemaharajaan Britania (bahasa Inggris: British Raj; /rɑː/; dari rāj, secara harafiah, "kekuasaan" dalam Hindustani)[1] merujuk pada periode kekuasaan Britania di anakbenua India, yang mencakup India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, dan Myanmar, di mana wilayah-wilayah tersebut berada dalam kekuasaan kolonial Britania sebagai bagian dari Imperium Britania.[2][3][4][5] Sejak kemerdekaan negara-negara tersebut, masa sebelum kemerdekaan mereka disebut dengan istilah India Britania (British India), walaupun sebelum kemerdekaan istilah tersebut hanya merujuk pada bagian anakbenua yang berada langsung di bawah pemerintahan Inggris di Delhi dan sebelumnya Kolkata.

Kemaharajaan Britania
1858–1947
Bintang India (bendera) Bintang India
Lagu kebangsaan
"God Save the King/Queen"
Kemaharajaan Britania pada tahun 1936
Ibu kota Kolkata (1858-1911)
New Delhi (1911-1947)
Bahasa
Bentuk pemerintahan Koloni Britania
Monarki dan Kaisar Britaniaa
 -  1858–1901 Victoria
 -  1901–1910 Edward VII
 -  1910–1936 George V
 -  1936 Edward VIII
 -  1936–1947 George VI
Raja Mudab
 -  1858–1862 Charles Canning (pertama)
 -  1947 Louis Mountbatten (terakhir)
Sekretaris Negara
 -  1858–1859 Edward Stanley (pertama)
 -  1947 William Hare (terakhir)
Badan legislatif Dewan Legislatif Kekaisaran
Sejarah
 -  Perang Plassey & Pemberontakan India 23 Juni 1757 & 10 Mei 1857
 -  Government of India Act 2 Agustus 1858
 -  Indian Independence Act 18 Juli 1947
 -  Pemisahan India 15 Agustus 1947
Mata uang Rupee India
Pendahulu
Pengganti
Kekuasaan Perusahaan Hindia Timur di India
Kekaisaran Mughal
Emirat Afghanistan
Azad Hind
Pemerintahan Interim India
Dominion India
Dominion Pakistan
Kerajaan Jammu dan Kashmir
Kekuasaan Britania di Burma
Negara Bagian Trusial
Koloni Aden
Negeri-Negeri Selat
a. Gelar kaisar India hadir pada tahun 1876–1948
b. Gelar lengkapnya adalah "Raja Muda dan Gubernur-Jenderal India"
Imperium Britania pada puncaknya pada tahun 1919. India dan negara-negara lain di anakbenua di bawah kekuasaan Britania ditandai dengan warna ungu.

Banyak wilayah yang berada di bawah kekuasaan Britania pada masa ini yang tidak langsung diperintah oleh orang-orang Britania, melainkan merupakan "Negara Kepangeranan" (Princely States) independen yang dipimpin oleh Maharaja, Raja, Thakur, dan Nawab, yang menandatangani perjanjian untuk tunduk pada monarki Britania. Hal ini dimulai sejak 1858, sewaktu kekuasaan Perusahaan Hindia Timur Britania dikembalikan ke Tahta Britania, sampai tahun 1947, sewaktu India dibagi menjadi dua negara berdaulat, India dan Pakistan. Walaupun Sri Lanka (pada waktu itu disebut Seylon) adalah periferal dari anakbenua India, wilayah ini tidak dianggap sebagai bagian dari Kemaharajaan, karena diperintah sebagai Koloni Tahta (Crown Colony) dari London dan bukan oleh Viceroy India sebagai bagian dari Imperium India (Indian Empire). India Prancis dan India Portugis terdiri dari daerah-daerah kantung pesisir yang masing-masing diperintah oleh Prancis dan Portugal; wilayah-wilayah ini diintegrasikan ke dalam India setelah kemerdekaan India.

Daftar isi

GeografiSunting

 
India Britania pada tahun 1880

Kemaharajaan Britania membentang di hampir semua wilayah India, Pakistan, dan Bangladesh saat ini, kecuali pada kepemilikan kecil oleh negara-negara Eropa lainnya seperti Goa dan Pondicherry.[6] Daerah ini sangat beragam, berisi pegunungan Himalaya, dataran banjir yang subur, Dataran Indo-Gangga, garis pantai panjang, hutan kering tropis, dataran tinggi kering, dan gurun Thar.[7] Selain itu, pada berbagai waktu, itu termasuk Aden (dari 1858 hingga 1937),[8] Burma Bawah (dari 1858 hingga 1937), Burma Atas (dari 1886 hingga 1937), Somaliland Britania (sesaat dari 1884 hingga 1898), dan Singapura (sesaat dari 1858 hingga 1867). Burma dipisahkan dari India dan dikelola secara langsung oleh Kerajaan Britania dari tahun 1937 hingga kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1948. Negara bagian Trusial di Teluk Persia dan negara-negara di bawah Keresidenan Teluk Persia secara teori adalah negara kepangeranan serta Kepresidenan dan provinsi di India Britania sampai 1947 serta menggunakan rupee sebagai satuan mata uang mereka.[9]

Di antara negara-negara lain di kawasan ini, Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka) diserahkan ke Britania pada tahun 1802 di bawah Traktat Amiens. Ceylon adalah bagian dari Kepresidenan Madras antara 1793 dan 1798.[10] Kerajaan Nepal dan Bhutan, setelah berperang dengan Britania, perjanjian kemudian ditandatangani dengan mereka dan diakui oleh Britania sebagai negara merdeka.[11][12] Kerajaan Sikkim didirikan sebagai negara kepangeranan setelah Perjanjian Anglo-Sikkim pada tahun 1861; namun, masalah kedaulatan tidak terdefinisi.[13] Kepulauan Maladewa adalah protektorat Britania dari tahun 1887 hingga 1965, namun bukan merupakan bagian dari India Britania.

India Britania dan Negara KepangerananSunting

India selama Kemaharajaan Britania terdiri dari dua jenis wilayah: India Britania dan Negara Bagian Asli (atau Negara kepangeranan).[14] Dalam Interpretation Act 1889, Parlemen Britania mengadopsi definisi berikut dalam Bagian 18:

Secara umum, istilah "India Britania" telah digunakan (dan masih digunakan) untuk merujuk pula pada daerah-daerah di bawah kekuasaan Perusahaan India Timur Britania di India pada tahun 1600-1858.[16] Istilah ini juga telah digunakan untuk merujuk pada "Britania di India".[17]

Istilah "Kerajaan India" dan "Kekaisaran India" (seperti istilah "Kerajaan Britania") tidak digunakan dalam undang-undang. Raja dikenal sebagai Permaisuri atau Kaisar India dan istilah tersebut sering digunakan dalam Pidato Ratu dan Pidato Prorogasi. Paspor yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah India Britania memiliki kata-kata "Kerajaan India" di sampulnya dan "Kekaisaran India" di bagian dalam.[18]

Kekuasaan lebih dari 175 negara kepangeranan, beberapa yang terbesar dan paling penting, dilaksanakan (atas nama Kerajaan Britania) oleh pemerintah pusat India Britania di bawah Raja Muda; sisa sekitar 500 negara bagian adalah tanggungan pemerintah provinsi Britania di India di bawah Gubernur, Letnan Gubernur, atau Komisaris Utama (seperti yang mungkin terjadi).[19] Perbedaan yang jelas antara "kekuasaan" dan "kekuasaan raja" dipasok oleh yurisdiksi pengadilan hukum: hukum India Britania bersandar pada hukum yang disahkan oleh Parlemen Britania dan kekuatan legislatif hukum-hukum yang dipegang oleh berbagai pemerintahan India Britania, baik pusat maupun lokal; sebaliknya, pengadilan-pengadilan Negara Kepangeranan berada di bawah otoritas penguasa masing-masing negara bagian tersebut.[19]

Pengaruh ideologiSunting

Pada saat kemerdekaan dan setelah kemerdekaan India, India telah mempertahankan lembaga-lembaga pusat Britania seperti pemerintahan parlementer, satu orang, satu suara serta aturan hukum melalui pengadilan non-partisan.[20] Hal ini dipertahankan serta pengaturan kelembagaan Kemaharahaan seperti administrasi distrik, universitas dan bursa saham. Salah satu perubahan besar adalah penolakan terhadap negara-negara kepangeranan yang terpisah sebelumnya. Metcalf menunjukkan bahwa selama dua abad, para intelektual Britania dan spesialis India menjadikan prioritas tertinggi membawa perdamaian, persatuan dan pemerintahan yang baik ke India.[21] Mereka menawarkan banyak metode bersaing untuk mencapai tujuan. Sebagai contoh, Cornwallis merekomendasikan mengubah Bengali Zamindar menjadi semacam tuan tanah Inggris yang mengendalikan urusan lokal di Inggris.[21] Munro diusulkan untuk berhubungan langsung dengan para petani. Sir William Jones dan para orientalis mempromosikan bahasa Sanskerta, sementara Macaulay mempromosikan bahasa Inggris.[22] Zinkin berpendapat bahwa dalam jangka panjang, apa yang paling penting mengenai warisan Kemaharajaan adalah ideologi politik Britania yang diambil alih oleh orang India setelah tahun 1947, terutama kepercayaan dalam kesatuan, demokrasi, supremasi hukum dan kesetaraan tertentu di luar kasta dan kepercayaan.[21] Zinkin melihat ini bukan hanya di partai Kongres tetapi juga di antara Nasionalis Hindu di Partai Bharatiya Janata, yang secara khusus menekankan tradisi Hindu.[23][24]

Lihat pulaSunting

CatatanSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, edisi ke-2, 1989: dari Skr. rāj "untuk memerintah, berkuasa", serumpun dengan L. rēx, rēg-is, OIr. , rīg "raja" (bandingan rich).
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, edisi ke-3 (Juni 2008), edisi daring (September 2011): "spec. In full British Raj. Direct rule in India by the British (1858–1947); this period of dominion."
  3. ^ Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India (dalam bahasa Inggris), John Wiley & Sons, hlm. 107, ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1, When the formal rule of the Company was replaced by the direct rule of the British Crown in 1858, […] 
  4. ^ Lowe, Lisa (2015), The Intimacies of Four Continents (dalam bahasa Inggris), Duke University Press, hlm. 71, ISBN 978-0-8223-7564-7, Company rule in India lasted effectively from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 until 1858, when following the 1857 Indian Rebellion, the British Crown assumed direct colonial rule of India in the new British Raj." 
  5. ^ Wright, Edmund (2015), A Dictionary of World History (dalam bahasa Inggris), Oxford University Press, hlm. 537, ISBN 978-0-19-968569-1, More than 500 Indian kingdoms and principalities […] existed during the 'British Raj' period (1858–1947) 
  6. ^ "The Geography of British India, Political & Physical (1882)". Archive.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). UK Archives. Diakses tanggal 2 Agustus 2014. 
  7. ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cambridge University Press. hlm. 247. ISBN 9781107507180. 
  8. ^ Marshall (2001), hlm. 384
  9. ^ Subodh Kapoor (Januari 2002). The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious ..., Volume 6 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cosmo Publications. hlm. 1599. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7. 
  10. ^ Codrington, 1926, Chapter X:Transition to British administration
  11. ^ [1] Archived 24 November 2015 di Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
  12. ^ "Bhutan." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
  13. ^ "Sikkim." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Agustus 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46212>.
  14. ^ "India" (dalam bahasa Inggris). World Digital Library. Diakses tanggal 24 Januari 2013. 
  15. ^ Interpretation Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict. c. 63), s. 18.
  16. ^ 1. Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume IV, published under the authority of the Secretary of State for India-in-Council, 1909, Oxford University Press. hlm. 5. Kutipan: "The history of British India falls, as observed by Sir C. P. Ilbert in his Government of India, into three periods. From the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the eighteenth century the East India Company is a trading corporation, existing on the sufferance of the native powers and in rivalry with the merchant companies of Holland and France. During the next century, the Company acquires and consolidates its dominion, shares its sovereignty in increasing proportions with the Crown, and gradually loses its mercantile privileges and functions. After the mutiny of 1857 the remaining powers of the Company are transferred to the Crown, and then follows an era of peace in which India awakens to new life and progress." 2. The Statutes: From the Twentieth Year of King Henry the Third to the ... oleh Robert Harry Drayton, Statutes of the Realm – Law – 1770 hlm. 211 (3) "Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the law of British India and of the several parts thereof existing immediately before the appointed ..." 3. Edney, Matthew H. (1997). Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765–1843 (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-18488-3.  4. Hawes, Christopher J. (1996). Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community in British India, 1773–1833 (dalam bahasa Inggris). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0425-5. 
  17. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, hlm. 463, 470 Kutipan1: "Before passing on to the political history of British India, which properly begins with the Anglo-French Wars in the Carnatic, ... (hlm. 463)" Kutipan2: "The political history of the British in India begins in the eighteenth century with the French Wars in the Carnatic. (hlm. 471)"
  18. ^ British Indian Passport of Muhammad Ali Jinnah Archived 10 February 2013 di Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, hlm. 60
  20. ^ "Britain in India, Ideology and Economics to 1900". Fsmitha (dalam bahasa Inggris). F. Smith. Diakses tanggal 2 Agustus 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c "Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: the British in Bengal". History.ac.uk. History. Diakses tanggal 2 Agustus 2014. 
  22. ^ Thomas R. Metcalf, The New Cambridge History of India: Ideologies of the Raj (1995), hlm. 10–12, 34–35
  23. ^ Zinkin, Maurice (Oktober 1995). "Legacies of the Raj". Asian Affairs (Book Review) (dalam bahasa Inggris). 26 (3): 314–316. ISSN 0306-8374. 
  24. ^ Y. K. Malik and V. B. Singh, Hindu Nationalists in India: the rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party (Westview Press, 1994), hlm. 14

BibliografiSunting

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  • Moore, Robin J. "India in the 1940s", in Robin Winks, ed. Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, (2001b), pp. 231–42
  • Nehru, Jawaharlal (1946), Discovery of India, Delhi: Oxford University Press 
  • Porter, Andrew, ed. (2001), Oxford History of the British Empire: Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press. Pp. 800, ISBN 978-0-19-924678-6 
  • Raghavan, Srinath. India's War: World War II and the Making of Modern South Asia (2016). wide-ranging scholarly survey excerpt
  • Rai, Lajpat (2008), England's Debt to India: A Historical Narrative of Britain's Fiscal Policy in India, BiblioBazaar, LLC, hlm. 263–281, ISBN 978-0-559-80001-6 
  • Raja, Masood Ashraf (2010), Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity, 1857–1947, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2 
  • Ramusack, Barbara (2004), The Indian Princes and their States (The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge University Press. Pp. 324, ISBN 978-0-521-03989-5 
  • Read, Anthony, and David Fisher; The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence (W. W. Norton, 1999) online edition; detailed scholarly history of 1940–47
  • Riddick, John F. The History of British India: A Chronology (2006) excerpt
  • Riddick, John F. Who Was Who in British India (1998); 5000 entries excerpt
  • Shaikh, Farzana (1989), Community and Consensus in Islam: Muslim Representation in Colonial India, 1860—1947, Cambridge University Press. Pp. 272., ISBN 978-0-521-36328-0 .
  • Talbot, Ian; Singh, Gurharpal, ed. (1999), Region and Partition: Bengal, Punjab and the Partition of the Subcontinent, Oxford University Press. Pp. 420, ISBN 978-0-19-579051-1 .
  • Thatcher, Mary. Respected Memsahibs: an Anthology (Hardinge Simpole, 2008)
  • Tinker, Hugh (October 1968), "India in the First World War and after", Journal of Contemporary History, 3 (4 , 1918–19: From War to Peace): 89–107, JSTOR 259853 .
  • Voigt, Johannes. India in The Second World War (1988)
  • Wainwright, A. Martin (1993), Inheritance of Empire: Britain, India, and the Balance of Power in Asia, 1938–55, Praeger Publishers. Pp. xvi, 256, ISBN 978-0-275-94733-0 .
  • Wolpert, Stanley A. (2007), "India: British Imperial Power 1858–1947 (Indian nationalism and the British response, 1885–1920; Prelude to Independence, 1920–1947)", Encyclopædia Britannica .
  • Wolpert, Stanley A. Jinnah of Pakistan (2005)
  • Wolpert, Stanley A. Tilak and Gokhale: revolution and reform in the making of modern India (1962) full text online

Sejarah ekonomiSunting

  • Anstey, Vera. The economic development of India (4th ed. 1952), 677pp; thorough scholarly coverage; focus on 20th century down to 1939
  • Chaudhary, Latika, et al. eds. A New Economic History of Colonial India (2015)
  • Derbyshire, I. D. (1987), "Economic Change and the Railways in North India, 1860–1914", Population Studies, 21 (3): 521–45, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00009197, JSTOR 312641 
  • Dutt, Romesh C. The Economic History of India under early British Rule, first published 1902, 2001 edition by Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-24493-0
  • Kumar, Dharma; Desai, Meghnad (1983), The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2: c. 1757-c. 1970, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-22802-2 
  • Lockwood, David. The Indian Bourgeoisie: A Political History of the Indian Capitalist Class in the Early Twentieth Century (I.B. Tauris, 2012) 315 pages; focus on Indian entrepreneurs who benefited from the Raj, but ultimately sided with the Indian National Congress.
  • Roy, Tirthankar (Summer 2002), "Economic History and Modern India: Redefining the Link", The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (3): 109–30, doi:10.1257/089533002760278749, JSTOR 3216953 
  • Sarkar, J. (2013, reprint). Economics of British India ... Third edition. Enlarged and partly rewritten. Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons.
  • Simmons, Colin (1985), "'De-Industrialization', Industrialization and the Indian Economy, c. 1850–1947", Modern Asian Studies, 19 (3): 593–622, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00007745, JSTOR 312453 
  • Tirthankar, Roy (2014), "Financing the Raj: the City of London and colonial India 1858–1940", Business History, 56 (6): 1024–1026, doi:10.1080/00076791.2013.828424 
  • Tomlinson, Brian Roger (1993), The Economy of Modern India, 1860–1970, New Cambridge history of India, Volume III, 3, Cambridge University Press, hlm. 109, ISBN 978-0-521-36230-6 
  • Tomlinson, Brian Roger (October 1975), "India and the British Empire, 1880–1935", Indian Economic and Social History Review, 12 (4): 337–380, doi:10.1177/001946467501200401 

Historiografi dan memoarSunting

  • Andrews, C.F. (2017). India and the Simon Report. Routledge reprint of 1930 first edition. hlm. 11. ISBN 9781315444987. 
  • Durant, Will (2011, reprint). The case for India. New York, N.Y: Simon and Schuster.
  • Ellis, Catriona (2009). "Education for All: Reassessing the Historiography of Education in Colonial India". History Compass. 7 (2): 363–75. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00564.x. 
  • Gilmartin, David (2015). "The Historiography of India's Partition: Between Civilization and Modernity". The Journal of Asian Studies. 74 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1017/s0021911814001685. 
  • Major, Andrea (2011). "Tall tales and true: India, historiography and British imperial imaginings". Contemporary South Asia. 19 (3): 331–32. doi:10.1080/09584935.2011.594257. 
  • Mantena, Rama Sundari. The Origins of Modern Historiography in India: Antiquarianism and Philology (2012)
  • Moor-Gilbert, Bart. Writing India, 1757–1990: The Literature of British India (1996) on fiction written in English
  • Mukherjee, Soumyen. "Origins of Indian Nationalism: Some Questions on the Historiography of Modern India." Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 13 (2014). online
  • Parkash, Jai. "Major trends of historiography of revolutionary movement in India-Phase II." (PhD dissertation, Maharshi Dayanand University, 2013). online
  • Philips, Cyril H. ed. Historians of India, Pakistan and Ceylon (1961), reviews the older scholarship
  • Stern, Philip J (2009). "History and Historiography of the English East India Company: Past, Present, and Future". History Compass. 7 (4): 1146–80. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00617.x. 
  • Whitehead, Clive (2005). "The historiography of British imperial education policy, Part I: India". History of Education. 34 (3): 315–329. doi:10.1080/00467600500065340. 
  • Winks, Robin, ed. Historiography (1999) vol. 5 in William Roger Louis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire, chapters 11–15, online
  • Winks, Robin W. The Historiography of the British Empire-Commonwealth: Trends, Interpretations and Resources (1966); this book is by a different set of authors from the previous 1999 entry online
  • Young, Richard Fox, ed., Indian Christian Historiography from Below, from Above, and in Between India and the Indianness of Christianity: Essays on Understanding—Historical, Theological, and Bibliographical—in Honor of Robert Eric Frykenberg (2009)

Bacaan lebih lanjutSunting

Buku tahun dan catatan statistikSunting