Bangsa Britania, Bangsa Britania Raya, atau Bangsa Briton, adalah warga Kerajaan Bersatu Britania Raya dan Irlandia Utara, Wilayah Seberang Laut Britania, dan Dependensi Kerajaan.[28][29][30] Hukum kewarganegaraan Britania Raya mengatur kewarganegaraan dan kewarganegaraan Britania modern, yang dapat diperoleh, misalnya, dengan keturunan dari warga negara Britania. Ketika digunakan dalam konteks sejarah, "orang Britania" atau "orang Briton" juga dapat merujuk pada orang Suku Briton, penduduk asli Britania Raya, dan Brittany yang anggotanya yang masih bertahan adalah Bangsa Wales modern, Kernowyon, dan Breton. Bangsa ini juga dapat merujuk pada warga bekas Imperium Britania.

Bangsa Britania
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Jumlah populasi
Kawasan dengan konsentrasi signifikan
 Britania Raya 57,678,000[A] [2]
 Amerika Serikat
  • 34,275,567[B]
  • 678,000[C]
[3][4]
 Australia
  • 10,764,870[B][5]
  • 1,300,000[D]
[6]
 Kanada
  • 10,753,945[B]
  • 609,000[D]
[7]
 Selandia Baru
  • 2,425,278[B]
  • 217,000[D]
[8]
 Afrika Selatan
  • 1,603,575
  • 750,000[D]
[6][9]
 Chili 700,000[B] [10]
 Prancis 400,000[D] [11]
 Irlandia 291,000[D] [6]
 Argentina 250,000[B] [12]
Bendera Britania Raya Wilayah Seberang Laut Britania Raya 247,899 [13]
 Uni Emirat Arab 240,000[C] [14]
 Spanyol 236,669[D] [15][16]
 Peru 150,000[B] [17]
 Jerman 115,000[C] [18]
 Pakistan 79,447[D] [19]
 Siprus 59,000[C] [18]
 Thailand 51,000[C] [20]
 Singapura 45,000[C] [20]
 Swiss 45,000[C] [21]
 Belanda 44,000[C] [21]
 Israel 44,000 [22]
 Portugal 41,000[C] [21]
 Swedia 39,989[C]
 Italia
  • 26,000[4]
  • 39,177[23]
 Norwegia 34,279[B] [24]
 Turki 34,000[C] [21]
 India 32,000[C] [25]
 Kenya 29,000[C] [26]
 Belgia 28,000[C] [21]
 Barbados 27,000[C] [27]
 Arab Saudi 26,000[C]
 Jamaika 25,000[C] [27]
Bahasa
Agama

Meskipun pernyataan awal menjadi orang Britania berasal dari Abad Pertengahan Akhir, penciptaan Kerajaan Britania Raya[31][32][33][34][35] pada tahun 1707 memicu rasa identitas nasional Britania.[36] Gagasan kebangsaan Britania (Britishness) ditempa selama Perang Napoleon antara Britania dan Kekaisaran Pertama Prancis,dan dikembangkan lebih lanjut selama era Victoria.[37] Sejarah kompleks pembentukan Kerajaan Bersatu Britania Raya dan Irlandia menciptakan "rasa kebangsaan dan kepemilikan" di Inggris dan Irlandia; Gagasan kebangsaan Britania ditumpangkan pada identitas yang jauh lebih tua", dari budaya Inggris, Skotlandia, Welsh, dan Irlandia, yang kekhasannya masih menolak gagasan tentang identitas Britania yang homogen.[38] Karena perpecahan etnis-sektarian yang sudah lama, identitas Britania di Irlandia Utara sangat kontroversial, tetapi dipegang dengan keyakinan kuat oleh kaum Union.[39]

Orang Britania modern diturunkan terutama dari berbagai kelompok etnis yang menetap di Pulau Britania Raya pada dan sebelum abad ke-11: Prasejarah, Brittonik, Romawi, Anglo-Saxon, Norse, dan Normandia.[40] Penyatuan politik progresif Kepulauan Britania memfasilitasi migrasi, pertukaran budaya dan bahasa, dan perkawinan antara orang-orang Inggris, Skotlandia, Wales, dan Irlandia selama Abad Pertengahan, akhir periode modern awal dan seterusnya.[41][42] Sejak 1922 dan sebelumnya, telah ada imigrasi ke Britania Raya oleh orang-orang dari tempat yang sekarang menjadi Republik Irlandia, Negara-negara Persemakmuran, daratan utama Eropa dan tempat lain; mereka dan keturunan mereka sebagian besar adalah warga negara Britania, dengan beberapa orang mengasumsikan identitas Britania, kewarganegaraan ganda, atau ditulis dgn tanda penghubung.[43]

Bangsa Britania adalah masyarakat multikultural, multi-bangsa,[44] dan multibahasa, dengan "aksen, ekspresi, dan identitas daerah yang kuat". [45] [46] Struktur sosial Britania Raya telah berubah secara drastis sejak abad ke-19, dengan penurunan ketaatan beragama, peningkatan kelas menengah, dan peningkatan keragaman etnis, khususnya sejak 1950-an. Penduduk Kerajaan Bersatu Britania Raya dan Irlandia Utara berjumlah sekitar 66 juta,[47] dengan diaspora Britania sekitar 140 juta jiwa terkonsentrasi di Australia, Kanada, dan Selandia Baru, dengan konsentrasi lebih kecil di Amerika Serikat, Republik Irlandia, Chili, Afrika Selatan dan bagian-bagiannya. dari Karibia.[48]

Lihat pulaSunting

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Pranala luarSunting

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Kesalahan pengutipan: Ditemukan tag <ref> untuk kelompok bernama "upper-alpha", tapi tidak ditemukan tag <references group="upper-alpha"/> yang berkaitan, atau </ref> penutup tidak ada