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Bahasa Dacia adalah bahasa yang pernah dituturkan di kawasan Karpatia pada zaman kuno. Pada abad ke-1, bahasa ini mungkin merupakan bahasa yang paling banyak dituturkan di wilayah Dacia dan Moesia dan mungkin juga sebagian dari wilayah sekitarnya. Bahasa ini diperkirakan mengalami kepunahan pada abad ke-7.

Bahasa Dacia
Dituturkan diRumania, Bulgaria utara, Serbia timur; Moldova, Ukraina barat daya, Slowakia tenggara, Hungary timur
PunahKemungkinan abad ke-6[1]
Indo-Eropa
Kode bahasa
ISO 639-3xdc
LINGUIST List
xdc
Glottologdaci1234[2]

Walaupun para ahli bahasa sepakat bahwa bahasa ini merupakan bagian dari rumpun bahasa Indo-Eropa, saat ini masih diperdebatkan bahasa ini tergolong ke dalam subrumpun yang mana. Terdapat beberapa hipotesis terkait dengan hal ini:

  1. Bahasa Dacia merupakan dialek bahasa Trakia yang sudah punah, atau sebaliknya. Contoh ahli yang mendukung hipotesis ini adalah Baldi (1983) dan Trask (2000).
  2. Bahasa Dacia adalah bahasa yang terpisah dari bahasa Trakia, tetapi memiliki hubungan yang erat dengannya dan masuk ke dalam subrumpun yang sama ("Trako-Dacia" atau "Daco-Trakia").[3]
  3. Bahasa Dacia, Trakia dan Baltik (Duridanov juga menambahkan Pelasgia) membentuk subrumpun tersendiri. Contoh ahli yang mendukung hipotesis ini adalah Schall (1974), Duridanov (1976), Radulescu (1987) dan Mayer (1996).[4][5][6][7]
  4. Georgiev (1977) mengusulkan bahwa bahasa Daco-Moesia merupakan nenek moyang bahasa Albania, tergolong ke dalam suatu cabang yang bukan Trakia, tetapi memiliki hubungan erat dengan bahasa Trakia dan terpisah dari bahasa Iliria.[8][9]

Bahasa Dacia sangat jarang ditulis. Tidak seperti bahasa Frigia yang didokumentasikan oleh sekitar 200 inskripsi, hanya terdapat satu inskripsi dalam bahasa Dacia yang masih bertahan.[10][11] Nama-nama Dacia yang mengacu kepada sejumlah tumbuh-tumbuhan dan daun-daunan untuk obat-obatan tradisional mungkin masih dapat ditemui di teks-teks kuno,[12][13] termasuk sekitar 60 nama tumbuhan di dalam teks karya Dioscorides.[14] Sekitar 1.150 nama pribadi[11][15] dan 900 toponim mungkin juga berasal dari bahasa Dacia.[11] Selain itu, beberapa ratus kosa kata dalam bahasa Rumania dan Albania modern mungkin berasal dari bahasa-bahasa Balkan kuno seperti bahasa Dacia. Ahli bahasa telah merekonstruksi sekitar 100 kata Dacia dari nama-nama tempat dengan menggunakan teknik linguistik komparatif, tetapi hanya sekitar 20-25 yang memperoleh dukungan secara luas pada tahun 1982.[16]

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ Bahasa Dacia at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, ed. (2013). "Dacian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Edwards, I. E. S.; Gadd, C. J.; Hammond, N. G. L. (1970). Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 840. ISBN 978-0-521-07791-0. 
  4. ^ Schall H., Sudbalten und Daker. Vater der Lettoslawen. In:Primus congressus studiorum thracicorum. Thracia II. Serdicae, 1974, S. 304, 308, 310
  5. ^ The Language of the Thracians, Ivan Duridanov, 2.9 Thracian and Illyrian
  6. ^ Radulescu M., The Indo-European position of lllirian, Daco-Mysian and Thracian: a historic Methodological Approach, 1987
  7. ^ "South Baltic - Mayer". Lituanus. 
  8. ^ Georgiev 1977, hlm. 282.
  9. ^ Траките и техният език (1977 В Георгиев), hlm. 132, 183, 192, 204
  10. ^ Asenova 1999, hlm. 212.
  11. ^ a b c Nandris 1976, hlm. 730.
  12. ^ Dioscurides
  13. ^ Pseudo-Apuleius
  14. ^ Glanville 1998, hlm. 120.
  15. ^ Petrescu-Dîmbovița 1978, hlm. 130.
  16. ^ Polomé 1982, hlm. 872.

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