Partai Konservatif (Britania Raya)

partai politik di Britania Raya

Partai Konservatif, atau nama resminya Partai Konservatif dan Unionis,[10] (bahasa Inggris: Conservatives and Unionist Party) adalah partai politik kanan tengah di Britania Raya dan saat ini di pimpin oleh Boris Johnson. Partai ini memerintah sejak 2010, dan pada saat ini menjadi peraih kursi terbanyak di Dewan Rakyat Britania Raya, dengan 313 anggota parlemen, dan juga 249 anggota House of Lords, 18 anggota Parlemen Eropa, 31 anggota Parlemen Skotlandia, 12 anggota Majelis Wales, delapan anggota Majelis London dan 8.916 anggota dewan lokal.[9]

Partai Konservatif dan Unionis
Conservatives and Unionist Party
Ketua umumBoris Johnson (sejak 2019)
KetuaBrandon Lewis
Kepala EksekutifSir Mick Davis,
(deputi Mike Chattey)
Ketua Komite 1922Sir Graham Brady
Sekretaris Komite 1922Bob Blackman
Nigel Evans
Lords LeaderThe Baroness Evans of Bowes Park
Dibentuk1834; 187 tahun lalu (1834)
Didahului olehPartai Tory, Partai Unionis Liberal
Kantor pusat4 Matthew Parker Street
London
SW1H 9HQ
Sayap pemudaPemuda Konservatif[1]
Sayap wanitaOrganisasi Wanita Konservatif
Sayap luar negeriKonservatif di Luar Negeri
Sayap LGBT+Konservatif LGBT+
Keanggotaan (2018)Kenaikan 124,000[2]
IdeologiKonservatisme[3][4]
Liberalisme ekonomi[4]
Unionisme Britania
Posisi politikKanan tengah[5][6][7]
Afiliasi di EropaAliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa
Afiliasi internasionalUni Demokrat Internasional
Kelompok Parlemen EropaKonservatif dan Reformis Eropa
Warna     Biru
Dewan Rakyat
365 / 650
House of Lords[8]
247 / 782
Parlemen Eropa
18 / 73
Parlemen Skotlandia
31 / 129
Majelis Wales
12 / 60
Majelis
Irlandia Utara
0 / 90
Majelis London
8 / 25
Pemerintah lokal[9]
7.615 / 20.712
Komisaris Polisi
20 / 40
Walikota terpilih
4 / 24
Administrasi terdevolusi di pemerintah
0 / 3
Situs web
www.conservatives.com

Partai Konservatif didirikan pada 1834 dari Partai Tory—nama sehari-hari partai ini adalah "Tory"—dan merupakan satu dari dua partai dominan di abad ke-19, bersama dengan Partai Liberal. Di bawah pimpinan Benjamin Disraeli, partai ini memainkan peran penting dalam politik pada masa keemasan Imperium Britania. Pada 1912, Partai Unionis Liberal bergabung dengan partai ini untuk membentuk Partai Konservatif dan Unionis. Pada 1920-an, Partai Buruh mengungguli Partai Liberal sebagai rival utama Konservatif. Perdana Menteri Konservatif — terutama Winston Churchill dan Margaret Thatcher — memimpin pemerintahan selama 57 tahun pada abad ke-20.

IdeologiSunting

Memposisikan diri pada politik kanan tengah Britania, Partai Konservatif secara ideologi konservatif. Faksi yang berbeda mendominasi partai selama beberapa waktu, termasuk Konservatif Satu Bangsa, Thatcheris, dan konservatif liberal, sementara pandangan dan kebijakannya telah berubah sepanjang sejarah. Partai ini secara umum mengadopsi kebijakan ekonomi liberal—condong ke ekonomi pasar bebas, membatasi regulasi negara, dan mengejar privatisasi—meski di masa lalu juga mendukung proteksionisme. Partai ini termasuk unionis Britania, menentang reunifikasi Irlandia, kemerdekaan Wales dan Skotlandia. Selain itu di masa lalu juga mendukung pemeliharaan Imperium Britania. Dalam partai ini juga termasuk mereka yang memiliki pandangan berbeda terhadap Uni Eropa, di antaranya sayap Eroseptis dan pro Eropa. Dalam kebijakan sosial, secara historis partai ini lebih mengambil pendekatan konservatif sosial, meski sudah menyusut selama beberapa dekade terakhir. Dalam kebijakan luar negeri lebih cenderung pada kapabilitas militer yang kuat, mendukung partisipasi Britania di NATO.

Partai Konservatif adalah anggota Uni Demokrat Internasional dan Aliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa dan bergabung dalam kelompok parlemen Eropa Konservatif dan Reformis di Uni Eropa. Cabang partai di Skotlandia, Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Gibraltar bersifat otonom. Basis pendukungnya ada dari pemilih kelas menengah, utamanya di daerah pedesaan Inggris, dan dominasinya di politik Britania selama abad ke-20 menjadikan partai ini disebut sebagai salah satu partai paling berhasil di Dunia Barat.[11][12][13]

Hasil PemilihanSunting

pemilu di seluruh BritaniaSunting

Pemilihan umum InggrisSunting

Parlemen Britania Raya
Pemilihan Pemimpin Suara Kursi Posisi Pemerintah
No. Share No. ± Share
1835 Robert Peel 261,269 40.8%
273 / 658
  98 41.5%   2nd Whig
1837 379,694 48.3%
314 / 658
  41 47.7%   2nd Whig
1841 379,694 56.9%
367 / 658
  53 55.8%   1st Konservatif
1847 Earl of Derby 205,481 42.7%
325 / 656
Termasuk Peelite
  42 49.5%   1st Whig
1852 311,481 41.9%
330 / 654
Termasuk Peelite
  5 50.5%   1st Konservatif
1857 239,712 34.0%
264 / 654
  66 40.4%   2nd Whig
1859 193,232 34.3%
298 / 654
  34 45.6%   2nd Whig
1865 346,035 40.5%
289 / 658
  9 43.9%   2nd Liberal
1868[fn 1] Benjamin Disraeli 903,318 38.4%
271 / 658
  18 41.2%   2nd Liberal
1874 1,091,708 44.3%
350 / 652
  79 53.7%   1st Konservatif
1880 1,462,351 42.5%
237 / 652
  113 36.3%   2nd Liberal
1885[fn 2] Marquess of Salisbury 2,020,927 43.5%
247 / 670
  10 36.9%   2nd Liberal minoritas
1886 1,520,886 51.1%
317 / 670
  70 47.3%   1st Conservative–Unionis Liberal
1892 2,159,150 47.0%
268 / 670
  49 40.0%   2nd Liberal
1895 1,894,772 49.0%
340 / 670
  72 50.7%   1st Conservative–Liberal Unionist
1900 1,767,958 50.3%
335 / 670
  5 50.0%   1st Conservative–Liberal Unionist
1906 Arthur Balfour 2,422,071 43.4%
131 / 670
  204 19.6%   2nd Liberal
January 1910 3,104,407 46.8%
240 / 670
  109 35.8%   2nd Liberal minoritas
December 1910 2,420,169 46.6%
235 / 670
  5 35.1%   2nd Liberal minoritas
Digabung dengan Partai Unionis Liberal pada tahun 1912 menjadi Partai Konservatif dan Unionist
1918[fn 3] Bonar Law 3,472,738 33.3%
379 / 707
332 elected with Coupon
  108 53.6%   1st Coalisi Liberal–Conservative
1922 5,294,465 38.5%
344 / 615
  35 55.9%   1st Conservative
1923 Stanley Baldwin 5,286,159 38.0%
258 / 625
  86 41.3%   1st Labour minority
1924 7,418,983 46.8%
412 / 615
  124 67.0%   1st Conservative
1929[fn 4] 8,252,527 38.1%
260 / 615
  152 42.3%   2nd Labour minority
1931 11,377,022 55.0%
470 / 615
  210 76.4%   1st Conservative–Liberal–National Labour
1935 10,025,083 47.8%
386 / 615
  83 62.8%   1st Conservative–Liberal National–National Labour
1945 Winston Churchill 8,716,211 36.2%
197 / 640
  189 30.8%   2nd Labour
1950 11,507,061 40.0%
282 / 625
  85 45.1%   2nd Labour
1951 13,724,418 48.0%
302 / 625
  20 48.3%   1st Conservative–National Liberal
1955 Anthony Eden 13,310,891 49.7%
324 / 630
  22 51.4%   1st Conservative–National Liberal
1959 Harold Macmillan 13,750,875 49.4%
345 / 630
  21 54.8%   1st Conservative–National Liberal
1964 Alec Douglas-Home 12,002,642 43.4%
298 / 630
  47 47.3%   2nd Labour
1966 Edward Heath 11,418,455 41.9%
250 / 630
  48 39.7%   2nd Labour
1970[fn 5] 13,145,123 46.4%
330 / 630
  80 52.4%   1st Conservative
February 1974 11,872,180 37.9%
297 / 635
  33 46.8%   2nd Labour minority
October 1974 10,462,565 35.8%
277 / 635
  20 43.6%   2nd Labour
1979 Margaret Thatcher 13,697,923 43.9%
339 / 635
  62 53.4%   1st Conservative
1983 13,012,316 42.4%
397 / 650
  38 61.1%   1st Conservative
1987 13,760,935 42.2%
376 / 650
  21 57.8%   1st konservatif
1992 John Major 14,093,007 41.9%
336 / 651
  40 51.6%   1st konservatif
1997 9,600,943 30.7%
165 / 659
  171 25.0%   2nd Buruh
2001 William Hague 8,357,615 31.7%
166 / 659
  1 25.2%   2nd Buruh
2005 Michael Howard 8,785,941 32.4%
198 / 646
  32 30.7%   2nd Buruh
2010 David Cameron 10,704,647 36.1%
306 / 650
  108 47.1%   1st konservatif–Demokrat Liberal
2015 11,334,920 36.9%
330 / 650
  24 50.8%   1st Konservatif
2017 Theresa May 13,632,914 42.3%
317 / 650
  13 48.8%   1st Konservatif minoritas
Dengan Kepercayaan dan penawaran DUP
2019 Boris Johnson 13,966,451 43.6%
365 / 650
  48 56.2%   1st Konservatif
Note
  1. ^ The first election held under the Reform Act 1867.
  2. ^ Pemilihan pertama diadakan di bawah Representation of the People Act 1884 dan Redistribusi of Seats Act 1885.
  3. ^ The first election held under the Representation of the People Act 1918 in which all men over 21, and most women over the age of 30 could vote, and therefore a much larger electorate.
  4. ^ The first election held under the Representation of the People Act 1928 which gave all women aged over 21 the vote.
  5. ^ Franchise extended to all 18- to 20-year-olds under the Representation of the People Act 1969.

Lihat pulaSunting

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ "Young Conservatives Relaunch". Guido Fawkes. 16 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2018. 
  2. ^ Audickas; Dempsey; Keen. "Membership of UK political parties". Parliament.uk. Diakses tanggal 5 May 2018. 
  3. ^ "Capping welfare and working to control immigration". Conservative and Unionist Party. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 9 June 2016. Diakses tanggal 1 July 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "United Kingdom". Parties and Elections in Europe. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2018. 
  5. ^ Whiteley, Paul; Seyd, Patrick; Richardson, Jeremy (1994). True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership. Oxford University Press. hlm. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-19-154441-5. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Lynch, Philip; Whitaker, Richard; Loomes, Gemma. "Competing on the centre right: An examination of party strategy in Britain". University of Leicester. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Coulson, Rebecca (4 May 2016). "What does being right wing mean?". Conservative Home. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Lords by party, type of peerage and gender". Parliament.uk. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Local Council Political Compositions". Open Council Date UK. 23 January 2018. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 30 September 2017. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  10. ^ "Profile: The Conservative Party". BBC News. 25 March 2010. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2017. 
  11. ^ Steve Coulter (10 April 2011). "Book Review: The Conservative Party from Thatcher to Cameron". Diakses tanggal 8 July 2016. 
  12. ^ Philip Johnston (19 April 2016). "The Conservative Party may be destroyed by this European madness". The Daily Telegraph. Diakses tanggal 8 July 2016. 
  13. ^ Andrew Gimson (15 May 2017). "Why the Tories keep winning". New Statesman (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 18 October 2017. 

BibliografiSunting

Bale, Tim (2011). The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to Cameron. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-4858-3. 
Blake, Robert (2011). The Conservative Party from Peel to Major (edisi ke-4th). London: Faber Finds. 
Bulmer-Thomas, Ivor. The Growth of the British Party System Volume I: 1640–1923 (1965); The Growth of the British Party System Volume II: 1924–1964, revised to 1966 Conservative-Labour Confrontation (1967)
Evans, Eric J. (2004). Thatcher and Thatcherism. 
Garnett, Mark, and Philip Lynch. The conservatives in crisis: the Tories after 1997 (1994)
Paterson, David (2001). Liberalism and Conservatism, 1846–1905. 

Bacaan lebih lanjutSunting

  • Bale, Tim. The Conservatives since 1945: the Drivers of Party Change. (2012, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-923437-0)
  • Ball, Stuart. Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918-1945 (Oxford UP, 2013).
  • Beer, Samuel. "The Conservative Party of Great Britain," Journal of Politics Vol. 14, No. 1 (February 1952), pp. 41–71 in JSTOR
  • Blake, Robert and Louis William Roger, eds. Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War (Oxford UP, 1992), 581 pp; 29 essays by scholars on specialized topics
  • Blake, Robert. The Conservative Party From Peel To Churchill (1970) online
  • Campbell, John. Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady (Pimlico (2003). ISBN 0-7126-6781-4
  • Charmley, John. "Tories and Conservatives." in David Brown, Robert Crowcroft, and Gordon Pentland eds., The Oxford Handbook of Modern British Political History, 1800-2000 (2018): 306.
  • Dorey, Peter; Garnett, Mark; Denham, Andrew. From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party, 1997–2010 (2011) Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-54238-9 excerpt and text search
  •  ⸻ . British conservatism: the politics and philosophy of inequality (IB Tauris, 2010), Covers more than just political party.
  • Ensor, R. C. K. England, 1870-1914 online, passim.
  • Green, E. H. H. Ideologies of conservatism: conservative political ideas in the twentieth century (2004)
  •  ⸻ . The Crisis of conservatism: The politics, economics, and ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914 (1996)
  • Harris, Robert. The Conservatives – A History (2011) Bantam Press ISBN 978-0-593-06511-2
  • Hayton, Richard, and Andrew Scott Crines, eds. Conservative orators from Baldwin to Cameron (2015).
  • King, Anthony, ed. British Political Opinion 1937–2000: The Gallup Polls (2001)
  • Lawrence, Jon. Electing Our Masters: The Hustings in British Politics from Hogarth to Blair (Oxford University Press, 2009) excerpt and text search
  • McKenzie, R. T. and A. Silver. Angels in Marble: Working-class Conservatives in Urban England (1968)
  • Mowat, Charles Loch. Britain between the Wars, 1918–1940 (1955) 694 pp; Detailed clinical history during
Norton, Bruce F. Politics in Britain (2007) textbook
  • Parry, J. P. "Disraeli and England," Historical Journal Vol. 43, No. 3 (September 2000), pp. 699–728 in JSTOR
  • Powell, David. British Politics, 1910–1935: The Crisis of the Party System (2004)
  • Roberts, Andrew. Churchill: Walking with Destiny (2018), a fully detailed biography.
  • Reitan, Earl Aaron. The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001 (2003) Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2
  • Searle, G. R. A New England?: Peace and War 1886–1918 (2005) 976pp broad survey
  • Seldon, Anthony and Stuart Ball, eds. Conservative Century: The Conservative Party since 1900 (1994) 896pp; essays by experts Contents
  • Snowdon, Peter. Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party (2010) HarperPress ISBN 978-0-00-730884-2
  • Taylor, A. J. P. English History, 1914–1945 (1965), a standard political history of the era
  • Thackeray, David. "Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth‐Century Britain," Journal of British Studies (2010) 49#4 pp. 826–48.
  • Windscheffel, Alex. "Men or Measures? Conservative Party Politics, 1815–1951," Historical Journal Vol. 45, No. 4 (December 2002), pp. 937–51 in JSTOR

HistoriografiSunting

  • Crowson, N. J., ed. The Longman Companion to the Conservative Party Since 1830 (2001); chronologies; relations with women, minorities, trade unions, EU, Ireland, social reform and empire.
  • Harrison, Brian. "Margaret Thatcher's Impact on Historical Writing", in William Roger Louis, ed., Irrepressible Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain (London, 2013), 307–21.
  • Kowol, Kit. "Renaissance on the Right? New Directions in the History of the Post-War Conservative Party." Twentieth Century British History 27#2 (2016): 290–304. online
  • Porter, Bernard. "'Though Not an Historian Myself…'Margaret Thatcher and the Historians." Twentieth Century British History 5#2 (1994): 246–56.
  • Turner, John. "The British Conservative Party in the Twentieth Century: from Beginning to End?." Contemporary European History 8#2 (1999): 275–87.

Pranala luarSunting