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Mandan (Mandan: Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo) adalah bahasa Siouan yang sudah punah. Bahasa ini pernah dituturkan oleh suku Mandan di wilayah Dakota Utara di Amerika Serikat.

Mandan
Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo
Dituturkan diAmerika Serikat
WilayahReservasi Fort Berthold, Dakota Utara
EtnisMandan
Punah9 Desember 2016, setelah kematian Edwin Benson[1]
KebangkitanDiajarkan di Fort Berthold Community College
Kode bahasa
ISO 639-3mhq
Glottologmand1446[2]
Linguasfer64-AAB-a
Artikel ini mengandung simbol fonetik IPA. Tanpa bantuan render yang baik, Anda akan melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain, bukan karakter Unicode.

Pada tahun 2009, hanya ada satu penutur fasih bahasa Mandan yang tersisa, yaitu Dr. Edwin Benson (1931–2016).[3] Bahasa ini pun punah setelah ia meninggal dunia pada tahun 2016. Meskipun begitu, bahasa ini diajarkan di sekolah-sekolah lokal.[4] Bahasa ini juga diajarkan di Fort Berthold Community College.[3]

Bahasa Mandan awalnya dianggap berhubungan erat dengan bahasa Hidatsa dan Crow, tetapi bahasa Mandan sudah berhubungan dengan bahasa Hidatsa dan Crow selama bertahun-tahun, sehingga hubungan antara bahasa Mandan dengan bahasa-bahasa Siouan lainnya tidak diketahui secara pasti.

Bahasa ini terdiri dari dua dialek utama, yaitu Nuptare dan Nuetare.

Contoh kataSunting

  • síire "kuning"
  • xíire "coklat"

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ "Edwin Benson, last-known fluent speaker of Mandan, passes away at 85". Diakses tanggal 2016-11-10. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, ed. (2013). "Mandan". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b The Missoulian. 11 May 2009. Jodi Rave. "The last speaker: UND to honor Mandan, last to speak Nu'eta as 1st language."
  4. ^ "Last known fluent Mandan speaker honored". News From Indian Country. Diakses tanggal 2012-09-27. 

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Carter, Richard T. (1991a). Old Man Coyote and the wild potato: A Mandan trickster tale. In H. C. Wolfart & J. L. Finlay (Ed.), Linguistic studies presented to John L. Finlay (pp. 27–43). Memoir (No. 8). Winnipeg: Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics. ISBN 0-921064-08-X.
  • Carter, Richard T. (1991b). Maximilian's Ruptare vocabulary: Phililogical evidence and Mandan phonology. In F. Ingemann (Ed.), 1990 Mid-America Linguistics Conference: Papers (pp. 479–489). Lawrence, KS: Department of Linguistics, University of Kansas.
  • Chafe, Wallace. (1973). Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10, pp. 1164–1209). The Hague: Mouton. (Republished as Chafe 1976a).
  • Chafe, Wallace. (1976a). Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Native languages of the Americas (pp. 527–572). New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-37157-X. (Originally published as Chafe 1973).
  • Chafe, Wallace. (1976b). The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan languages. Trends in linguistics: State-of-the-art report (No. 3). The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-3443-6.
  • Coberly, Mary. (1979). A text analysis and brief grammatical sketch based on 'Trickster challenges the buffalo': A Mandan text collected by Edward Kennard. Colorado Research in Linguistics, 8, 19–94.
  • Hollow, Robert C. (1970). A Mandan dictionary. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
  • Hollow, Robert C.; & Parks, Douglas. (1980). Studies in plains linguistics: A review. In W. R. Wood & M. P. Liberty (Eds.), Anthropology on the Great Plains (pp. 68–97). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 0-8032-4708-7.
  • Kennard, Edward. (1936). Mandan grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics, 9, 1–43.
  • Lowie, Robert H. (1913). Societies of the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians. In R. H. Lowie, Societies of the Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan Indians (pp. 219–358). Anthropological papers of the American Museum Of Natural History (Vol. 11, Part 3). New York: The Trustees. (Texts are on pp. 355–358).
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Mixco, Mauricio C. (1997a). Mandan. Languages of the world series: Materials 159. Münich: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-213-4.
  • Mixco, Mauricio C. (1997b). Mandan switch reference: A preliminary view. Anthropological Linguistics, 39, 220–298.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; Jones, A. Wesley; Hollow, Robert C; & Ripley, David J. (1978). Earth lodge tales from the upper Missouri. Bismarck, ND: Mary College.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • Will, George; & Spinden, H. J. (1906). The Mandans: A study of their culture, archaeology and language. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 81–219). Cambridge, MA: The Museum. (Reprinted 1976, New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation).
  • Wolvengrey, Arok. (1991). A marker of focus in Mandan discourse. In F. Ingemann (Ed.), 1990 Mid-America Linguistics Conference: Papers (pp. 584–598). Lawrence, KS: Department of Linguistics, University of Kansas.
  • Wood, Raymond W.; & Irwin, Lee. (2001). "Mandan". In "Plains", ed. Raymond J. DeMaille. Vol. 13 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.