Ye Ukraina

Ye Ukraina (Є є; Italik: Є є) merupakan sebuah huruf dari Alfabet Kiril. Huruf ini merupakan huruf yang terpisah dalam Alfabet Ukraina (posisi ke-8 sejak tahun 1992, posisi ke-7 sebelum tahun 1992), Alfabet Rusyn Panonia, dan dikedua Alfabet Rusyn Karpatia. Huruf ini muncul setelah huruf E dalam alfabet diatas. Dalam Bahasa Slavonia Gerejawi Modern, konsonan ini dianggap sebagai bagian dari Ye (Е е) (pemilihan penggunaan dari Є dan Е diatur oleh hukum ortografi. Sampai pertengahan abad ke-19, Є/є juga digunakan untuk Alfabet Sirilik Romania dan Abjad Kiril Serbia (huruf ini kemudian dihapus pada alfabet Vuk Karadžić dan digantikan dengan digraf је). Bahasa Slavonik moderen mungkin menggunakan bentuk Є/є dalam menuliskan Е/е untuk tunuan dekoratif. Huruf ini dinamakan sesuai nama kunonya, Yest dan nama deskripsinya, E panjang.

Archive-ugent-be-973E9242-B062-11E1-9EF1-99BDAAF23FF7 DS-375 (cropped)-derivative.jpg
Huruf Kiril
Ye Ukraina
 
Ukrainian Ye - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Penggunaan Fonetis:[je], [jɛ]
Nama:єстъ
Nomor Kiril:5
Alfabet Kiril
Huruf Bahasa Slavia
АА́А̀БВГҐ
ДЂЃЕÈЁЄ
ЖЗЗ́ЅИИ́Ѝ
ЙІЇЈКЛЉ
МНЊОŌПР
СС́ТЋЌУU dengan akut
ӮЎФХЦЧЏ
ШЩЪЫЬЭЮ
Я
Huruf non-Slavia
ӐА̄А̊А̃ӒӒ̄Ӕ
ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌ҒГ̑
Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌ӶД̣
Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈Ӂ
ҖӜҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣
ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃ҊӤ
ҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
ӅԮԒӍӉҢԨ
ӇҤО́О̀О̆О̂О̃
ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆Ӫ
ҨԤР̌ҎҪС̣С̱
Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃Ӱ Ӱ́Ӳ
ҮҮ́ҰХ̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦҴ
ҶӴӋҸҼҾЫ̆
Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇Ӭ
Ӭ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Huruf Kiril Kuno
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

Dalam bahasa Ukraina, Є/є biasanya melambangkan suara /je/ atau /jɛ/ seperti pengucapan ye dalam "Yesus". (Lihat penggunaan untuk detail lanjutan.)

Ye bahasa Ukraina juga diromanisasi sebagai je atau e. (Lihat transliterasi ilmiah Sirilik.)

SejarahSunting

Huruf Є/є diambil dari salah satu dari bentuk varian huruf Kiril Ye (Е е), yang dikenal sebagai "E panjang" atau "E jangkar". Є-shaped letter can be found in late uncial (ustav) and semi-uncial (poluustav) Cyrillic manuscripts, especially ones of Ukrainian origin. Typically it corresponds to the letter Iotated E (Ѥ ѥ) of older monuments. Certain old primers and grammar books of Church Slavonic language had listed Є/є as a letter distinct from Е/е and placed it near the end of the alphabet (the exact alphabet position varies). Among modern-style Cyrillic scripts (known as "civil script" or "Petrine script"), Є/є was first used in Serbian books (end of the 18th century and first half of the 19th century); sometimes, Serbian printers might be using Э/э instead of Є/є due to font availability. For the modern Ukrainian language, Є/є is used since 1837 (orthography of almanach "Русалка Днѣстровая" (Rusalka Dnistrovaya)). In Cyrillic numerals, Є is always preferred to E to represent 5.

PenggunaanSunting

Ukraina dan RusynSunting

Dalam Ukraina dan Rusyn (as well as in old Serbian orthography), Є/є represents the sound combination /je/ or the vowel sound /e/ after a palatalized consonant.

KhantySunting

Dalam Khanty, Huruf ini melambangkam suara /je/.

Old Slavonic, Old East SlavicSunting

In oldest Slavonic manuscripts, Є is just a graphical variant of Е and thus represents /e/ without palatalization. Later Є replaces Ѥ (i.e. denotes /ʲe/ after consonants and /je/ after vowels and in an initial position). Yet later, it also accepts both decorative role (as an initial letter of a word, even if there were no iotation) and an orthographical one, to make distinction between certain homonymical forms (mostly between plural and singular).

New Church SlavonicSunting

Since the mid-17th century, the Church Slavonic orthography has the following main rules related to the usage of shapes Є and Е:

  • in an initial position, always use Є;
  • otherwise, use Е with the following exceptions:
    • in noun's endings, use -євъ and -ємъ for plural and -евъ, -емъ for singular;
    • in other endings, suffixes and roots of nouns, adjectives, participles, numerals and pronouns, use Є for plural/dual, if there exists a homonymous form in the singular (either of the same word or a different one; the actual rule is much more complicated and not well-defined, as there are multiple other ways to eliminate such homonymy);
    • publishers from Kyiv also use Є in the genitive case of three pronouns (менє, тебє, себє), and Е in the accusative case (мене, тебе, себе);
  • as a numerical sign (with value 5) use Є, not Е (the rule has often been ignored outside of the Russian Empire).

In the modern Church Slavonic alphabet, the 6th letter is typically shown as Єєе (one uppercase accompanied with two variants of lowercase).

The different shapes Є and Е exist only in lowercase; thus in all caps and small caps styles, the distinction between Є and Е disappears.

Old Believers print their books using an older variant of New Church Slavonic language. Its orthography combines the fully formal system described above with the older tradition to use Є phonetically (after vowels, to represent iotated /je/).

Similar charactersSunting

The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee uses , a character similar to capital Є, to represent the Cambrian Period in geologic history.[1]

Є is similar to the symbol for the euro currency . In a memorandum from the European Commission on the design of the euro sign, Ukrainian Ye was used to represent the Greek letter Epsilon.[2]

Huruf TerkaitSunting

Kode KomputasiSunting

Informasi karakter
Pratayang Є є
Nama Unicode CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
UKRAINIAN IE
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
UKRAINIAN IE
Pengodean decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1028 U+0404 1108 U+0454
UTF-8 208 132 D0 84 209 148 D1 94
Referensi karakter numerik Є Є є є
Referensi karakter bernama Є є
KOI8-U 180 B4 164 A4
Code page 855 135 87 134 86
Code page 866 242 F2 243 F3
Windows-1251 170 AA 186 BA
ISO-8859-5 164 A4 244 F4
Macintosh Cyrillic 184 B8 185 B9

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Federal Geographic Data Committee, ed. (August 2006). FGDC Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization FGDC-STD-013-2006 (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey for the Federal Geographic Data Committee. hlm. A–32–1. Diakses tanggal August 23, 2010. 
  2. ^ "How to use the euro name and symbol". European Commission – Economic and Financial Affairs. Ec.europa.eu. Diakses tanggal 2010-04-07. 

Bacaan TambahanSunting

  • Півторак Г. П. Український алфавіт / /