Spesiesisme (/ˈspʃˌzɪzəm, -sˌzɪz-/) adalah pemberian nilai, hak atau pertimbangan khusus terhadap individu-individu yang didasarkan pada spesies mereka. Istilah ini kadang-kadang digunakan oleh pejuang hak-hak hewan yang mengeklaim bahwa spesiesisme merupakan prasangka yang serupa dengan rasisme atau seksisme. Mereka mengeklaim bahwa spesies suatu individu seharusnya tidak mengubah perlakuan moral terhadap individu tersebut.[1]

Makna yang terkandung di dalam istilah ini tidak selalu sama, tetapi secara umum terdapat dua gagasan yang tersirat di dalam istilah ini. Istilah ini biasanya mengacu kepada "spesiesisme manusia" (supremasi manusia) yang tidak memberikan hak, kebebasan dan perlindungan terhadap hewan selayaknya manusia.[2] Istilah ini juga dapat mengacu kepada pemberian nilai atau hak tertentu terhadap individu-individu berdasarkan spesies individu tersebut; contohnya, "spesiesisme manusia-simpanse" terjadi ketika manusia lebih mau memberikan hak kepada simpanse daripada anjing karena terdapat kemiripan antara manusia dengan simpanse.[3]

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ Ryder (2009), hlm. 320
  2. ^ Cavalieri (2001), hlm. 70
  3. ^ Waldau (2001), hlm. 5, 23–29

Bacaan lanjutSunting

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