Pertempuran Winwaed

Pertempuran Winwaed (Bahasa WalesMaes Gai; Bahasa Latin Abad Pertengahan: Strages Gai Campi[1]) merupakan sebuah konflik yang berlangsung pada tanggal 15 November 655[notes 1] antara Raja Penda dari Mercia dan Oswiu dari Bernicia, yang berakhir dengan kekalahan Mercia dan kematian Penda.[6] Pertempuran tersebut menandai kematian efektif paganisme Anglo-Saxon.

Pertempuran Winwaed
Penda of Mercia.jpg
Jendela Kaca patri dari klausura Katedral Worcester menunjukkan kematian Penda dari Mercia
Tanggal15 November 655
LokasiKemungkinan Cock Beck yang sekarang Yorkshire
Hasil Kemenangan Northumbria
Pihak terlibat
Kerajaan Northumbria Bernicia Kerajaan Merica
Kerajaan Anglia Timur
Tokoh dan pemimpin
Raja Oswiu dari Bernicia Raja Penda dari Mercia 
Raja Aethelhere 
Kekuatan
800 pasukan Bernicia 1,400 pasukan Mercia
800 pasukan Anglia Timur
Korban
500 tewas 450 tewas, 500 tenggelam

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the year as 655. Bede also gives the year as 655 and specifies a date, 15 November. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede began his year in September, and consequently November 655 would actually fall in 654; Frank Stenton also dated events accordingly in his Anglo-Saxon England (1943).[2] Others have accepted Bede's given dates as meaning what they appear to mean, considering Bede's year to have begun on 25 December or 1 January.[3] The historian D. P. Kirby suggested the year 656 as a possibility, alongside 655, in case the dates given by Bede are off by one year.[4] The Annales Cambriae gives the year as 657.[5]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Annales Cambriae [B], p. 8.
  2. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, translated and edited by M. J. Swanton (1996), paperback, ISBN 0-415-92129-5.
  3. ^ S. Wood, "Bede's Northumbrian dates again", The English Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 387, April 1983, pages 280–296
  4. ^ D. P. Kirby, "Bede and Northumbrian Chronology", The English Historical Review, Vol. 78, No. 308, July 1963, pages 514–27
  5. ^ Annales Cambriae at Fordham University
  6. ^ Selwood, Dominic (15 November 2016). "On this day: Britain's last great pagan king is struck down by Christians at the Battle of the Winwaed". The Telegraph. Diakses tanggal 14 November 2017. ((Perlu berlangganan (help)). 

Bacaan selanjutnyaSunting

  • Breeze, Andrew (2004), "The Battle of the Uinued and the River Went, Yorkshire", Northern History, 41 (2): 377–383, doi:10.1179/nhi.2004.41.2.377 

Pranala luarSunting