Pemboikotan bus Montgomery

Pemboikotan bus Montgomery adalah sebuah kampanye politik dan sosial menentang kebijakan segregasi ras pada sistem angkutan umum di Montgomery, Alabama. Hal ini merupakan peristiwa awal dalam berlangsungnya gerakan hak-hak sipil di Amerika Serikat. Kampanye tersebut berlangsung dari 5 Desember 1955—hari Senin setelah Rosa Parks, seorang wanita Afrika-Amerika, ditangkap karena penolakannya untuk menyerahkan kursinya kepada orang kulit putih—berakhir 20 Desember 1956, ketika keputusan federal Browder v. Gayle mulai berlaku, menghasilkan keputusan Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat yang menyatakan undang-undang Alabama dan Montgomery bahwa bus terpisah tidak konstitusional.[1][2]

Pemboikotan bus Montgomery
Bagian dari Gerakan Hak-Hak Sipil Afrika-Amerika
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted by Deputy Sheriff D.H. Lackey after being arrested on February 22, 1956, during the Montgomery bus boycott.jpg
Rosa Parks saat sidik jarinya diambil oleh Deputi Sheriff D.H. Lackey setelah penangkapannya karena memboikot transportasi umum
Tanggal05 Desember 1955 (1955-12-05) – 20 Desember 1956 (1956-12-20)
LokasiMontgomery, Alabama, A.S.
Sebab
Hasil
Pihak terlibat
  • Komisi Kota Montgomery
  • National City Lines
  • Garis Kota Montgomery
  • Montgomery Citizens Council
  • Tokoh utama

    Komisi Kota

    • W. A. Gayle, Presiden Komisi (walikota)
    • Frank Parks, Komisaris
    • Penjual Clyde, Komisaris Polisi

    Garis Kota Nasional

    • Kenneth E. Totten, wakil presiden

    Garis Kota Montgomery

    • J.H. Bagley, manajer
    • Jack Crenshaw, pengacara
    • James F. Blake, sopir bus

    ReferensiSunting

    1. ^ "Montgomery Bus Boycott". Civil Rights Movement Archive. 
    2. ^ Gallagher, Charles A.; Lippard, Cameron D., ed. (2014). Race and Racism in the United States: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 807. ISBN 9781440803468. 

    Daftar pustakaSunting

    • Berg, Allison, "Trauma and Testimony in Black Women's Civil Rights Memoirs: The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It, Warriors Don't Cry, and From the Mississippi ContributionsDelta", Journal of Women's History, 21 (Fall 2009), 84–107.
    • Branch, Taylor. Parting The Waters: America In The King Years, 1954-63 (1988; New York: Simon & Schuster/Touchstone, 1989). ISBN 0-671-68742-5
    • Carson, Clayborne, et al., editors, Eyes on The Prize Civil Rights Reader: documents, speeches, and first hand accounts from the black freedom struggle (New York:Penguin Books, 1991). ISBN 0-14-015403-5
    • Freedman, Russell, "Freedom Walkers: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott"
    • Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. (1986) ISBN 0-394-75623-1
    • Garrow, David J., editor, The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1987). ISBN 0-87049-527-5
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., Stride Toward Freedom. ISBN 0-06-250490-8
    • Morris, Aldon D., The Origins Of The Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing For Change (New York: The Free Press, 1984). ISBN 0-02-922130-7
    • Parks, Rosa (1992). My Story. New York: Dial Books. 
    • Raines, Howell, My Soul Is Rested: The Story Of The Civil Rights Movement In The Deep South. ISBN 0-14-006753-1
    • Robnett, Belinda. How Long? How Long?: African American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights. Oxford University Press. (1997) ISBN 978-0195114904
    • Thornton III, J. Mills. "Challenge and Response in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955–1956." Alabama Review 67.1 (2014): 40–112.
    • Thornton III, J. Mills. Dividing Lines: Municipal Politics and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Montgomery, Birmingham, and Selma (2002) excerpt
    • Walsh, Frank, Landmark Events in American History: The Montgomery Bus Boycott.
    • Williams, Juan, Eyes on The Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965 (New York: Penguin Books, 1988). ISBN 0-14-009653-1

    Pranala luarSunting