Mortalisme Kristen

Mortalisme Kristen atau kefanaan Kristen mengandung keyakinan bahwa jiwa manusia pada hakikatnya tidak kekal (immortal);[1][2][3][4][5] dan mungkin mencakup keyakinan bahwa jiwa berada dalam keadaan tidak mampu memahami apa-apa selama rentang waktu antara kematian jasmani dan kebangkitan tubuhnya,[6][7][8][9][10] suatu rentang waktu yang dikenal sebagai keadaan antara. "Tidur jiwa" sering kali dipandang sebagai istilah peyoratif[11][a][14] sehingga istilah "materialisme" yang dianggap lebih netral digunakan pula pada abad ke-19,[15] dan istilah "mortalisme Kristen" digunakan sejak tahun 1970-an.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

Secara historis, istilah psikopanikisme juga digunakan, terlepas dari permasalahan dengan etimologi[b][c] dan penerapannya.[24] Istilah thnetopsychism juga digunakan, misalnya oleh Gordon Campbell (2008) yang mengidentifikasi Milton sebagai orang yang memercayai keyakinan yang terakhir disebutkan[25] kendati De doctrina Christiana[d] maupun Paradise Lost[e] karyanya menyebut kematian jasmani sebagai "tidur" dan orang yang mengalami kematian jasmani "dibangkitkan dari tidur". Pada praktiknya, perbedaan tersebut sulit dikenali.[26]

Berbagai sudut pandang yang terkait dan tampak kontras seputar kehidupan setelah kematian misalnya rekonsiliasi universal, bahwa semua jiwa bersifat kekal (atau bersifat fana, namun semuanya dianugerahi kelangsungan hidup tanpa kecuali) dan akhirnya diperdamaikan, dan keselamatan khusus, bahwa suatu kehidupan yang positif setelah kematian jasmani hanya dialami secara eksklusif oleh jiwa-jiwa tertentu. Mortalisme Kristen diajarkan oleh beberapa teolog dan organisasi gerejawi sepanjang sejarah, kendati menghadapi penentangan dari aspek-aspek agama Kristen institusional. Dalam Konsili Lateran V, Gereja Katolik mengecam pemikiran semacam ini sebagai kesesatan yang serius dengan menyebutnya "penegasan-penegasan yang keliru". Para pendukung pemikiran ini misalnya Martin Luther, William Tyndale, John Milton, Thomas Hobbes, dan Isaac Newton.


  1. ^ Istilah ini juga lazim ditemukan dalam karya-karya tulis gerakan antikultus Kristen Trinitarian.[12][13]
  2. ^ Panikis (παννυχὶς, bahasa Inggris: pannychis) dalam bahasa Yunani berarti pesta sepanjang malam.[23]
  3. ^ Istilah panikis dikatakan digunakan dengan benar dalam pengertian Yunani klasik di dalam publikasi Psychopannychia asli karya Calvin dalam bahasa Latin.
  4. ^ Ia mengutip 1 Tesalonika 4:17 dst.
  5. ^ "Such a peal shall rouse their sleep" ("Gemuruh semacam itu akan membangunkan tidur mereka").


  1. ^ (Inggris) Garber; Ayers (2003), The Cambridge history of seventeenth-century philosophy, I: Volume 2, hlm. 383, But among philosophers they were perhaps equally notorious for their commitment to the mortalist heresy; this is the doctrine which denies the existence of a naturally immortal soul. .
  2. ^ (Inggris) Thomson (2008), Bodies of thought: science, religion, and the soul in the early Enlightenment, hlm. 42, For mortalists the Bible did not teach the existence of a separate immaterial or immortal soul and the word 'soul' simply meant 'life'; the doctrine of a separate soul was said to be a Platonic importation. .
  3. ^ (Inggris) Eccleshall; Kenney (1995), Western political thought: a bibliographical guide to post-war research, hlm. 80, mortalism, the denial that the soul is an incorporeal substance that outlives the body .
  4. ^ Kries 1997, hlm. 97: ‘In Leviathan, soul and body are one; there are no "separated essenses" [sic]; death means complete death – the soul, merely another word for life, or breath, ceases at the death of the body. This view of the soul is known as Christian mortalism – a heterodox view held, indeed, by some sincere believers and not unique to Hobbes.’
  5. ^ Brandon 2007, hlm. 65-1: ‘Mortalism, the idea that the soul is not immortal by nature’
  6. ^ (Inggris) Hick (1994), Death and eternal life, hlm. 211, christian mortalism – the view that the soul either sleeps until the Day of Judgment, or is annihilated and re-created .
  7. ^ (Inggris) Horvath (1993), Eternity and eternal life: speculative theology and science in discourse, hlm. 108, Thus the so-called Ganztodtheorie, or mortalism, states that with death the human person totally ceases to be. .
  8. ^ (Inggris) Pocock (2003), The Machiavellian moment: Florentine political thought and the Atlantic Republic Tradition, hlm. 35, doctrines of mortalism or psychopannychism, which asserted that the being or the experience of the soul were suspended during the remainder of secular time .
  9. ^ Fudge & Peterson 2000, hlm. 173 -1: ‘the belief that according to divine revelation the soul does not exist as an independent substance after the death of the body’
  10. ^ Almond 1994, hlm. 38: …‘mortalist views – particularly of the sort which affirmed that the soul slept or died – were widespread in the Reformation period. George Williams has shown how prevalent mortalism was among the Reformation radicals.’
  11. ^ de Greef 2008, hlm. 152 -1: “In the foreword of 1534, Calvin says that at the insistence of friends he had given in to the request to dispute the ‘heresy of soul sleep.’”
  12. ^ (Inggris) Hoekema, Anthony A (1963), The four major cults: Christian Science, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Seventh-Day Adventism, hlm. 136 .
  13. ^ (Inggris) Martin, Walter Ralston (1960), The truth about Seventh-Day Adventism, hlm. 117 .
  14. ^ (Inggris) The Rainbow, a magazine of Christian literature, 1879, hlm. 523, the term ‘soul-sleeper’ is used today only as a term of reproach .
  15. ^ (Inggris) Gardner, Rev. James (1858), The faiths of the world: an account of all religions and religious sects, hlm. 860, Soul-sleepers, a term sometimes applied to Materialists (which see), because they admit no intermediate state between death and the resurrection. 
  16. ^ (Inggris) Burns, Norman T (1972), Christian mortalism from Tyndale to Milton .
  17. ^ (Inggris) Overhoff, Jürgen (2000), Hobbes's theory of the will, hlm. 193, The term ‘Christian mortalism,’ which I have borrowed from the title of Norman T. Burns's masterly book on that topic .
  18. ^ (Inggris) "The tradition of Christian mortalism", The Mennonite quarterly review, Goshen College, 1969 .
  19. ^ (Inggris) Johnston, Mark (2010), Surviving Death, hlm. 24, The same dynamic can be found in John Milton's Christian Doctrine, another spirited defense of Christian mortalism .
  20. ^ Kries 1997: ‘Christian mortalism is thus a convenient "middle ground," which, by not departing wholly from possibly genuine... The advantage Hobbes's change to Christian mortalism appears to bring to his teaching is that it attenuates the cord that...’
  21. ^ (Inggris) Wright, Leonard Napoleon (1939), Christian mortalism in England (1643–1713) .
  22. ^ (Inggris) Force, James E; Popkin, Richard Henry (1994), The books of nature and Scripture: recent essays on natural Philosophy, Theology, and Biblical Criticism in the Netherlands, hlm. xvii, Force then goes on to show how Newton's Christian mortalism fits with Newton's core voluntarism, ie, his essentially… Force finds Newton's adoption of Christian mortalism clearly stated in Newton's manuscript entitled "Paradoxical…" 
  23. ^ (Inggris) Parker, Robert (2007), Polytheism and Society at Athens, hlm. 166, The mood of a pannychis was often one of gaiety, but this was also a form of religious action... The pannychis was marked, according to one charming definition, by 'la bonne humeure efficace' (Borgeaud) .
  24. ^ Williams 1962, hlm. 581: “It will be recalled that we have allowed the etymologically ambiguous word ‘psychopannychism’ to serve as the generic term for the two variants ‘soul sleep’...”
  25. ^ (Inggris) Campbell, Gordon; Corns, Thomas N; Hale, John K (2007), Milton and the manuscript of De doctrina Christiana, Oxford University Press, hlm. 117, ISBN 978-0-19-929649-1, The belief that the soul dies with the body but is resurrected at the last judgment is known as thnetopsychism; the belief that the soul sleeps from the moment of death until the last judgment is known as psychopannychism .
  26. ^ (Inggris) Labriola, Albert C (2005), Milton Studies, 45, Univ of Pittsburgh Press, hlm. 17, ISBN 978-0-8229-4267-2, Milton tends to espouse the variation of vital introspection known as Thnetopsychism, which holds that the body and soul die, though certain passages in De Doctrina Christiana seem to support the alternative type, Psychopannychism, which states that soul and body merely sleep until the Last Day. 

Daftar pustakaSunting

  • (Inggris) Almond (1994), Heaven and Hell in Enlightenment England .
  • (Inggris) Avery-Peck (2000), "Soul", dalam Neusner; et al., The Encyclopedia of Judaism 
  • (Inggris) Ball (2008), The Soul Sleepers: Christian Mortalism from Wycliffe to Priestley .
  • (Inggris) Blackburne (1765), A short historical view of the controversy concerning an intermediate state and the separate existence of the soul between death and the general resurrection, deduced from the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, to the present times .
  • (Inggris) Brandon (2007), The coherence of Hobbes's Leviathan: civil and religious authority combined .
  • (Inggris) Bromiley (2002), "Psychology", The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 3 (edisi ke-rev) .
  • (Inggris) Constas, Nicholas (2001), Talbot, Alice-Mary, ed., "'To Sleep, Perchance to Dream': The Middle State of Souls in Patristic and Byzantine Literature" (PDF), Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 55: 92–124, doi:10.2307/1291814, JSTOR 1291814, diakses tanggal 28 November 2010 .
  • (Inggris) Donelley (1976), Calvinism and Scholasticism in Vermigli's doctrine of man and grace .
  • (Inggris) Fudge, Edward; Peterson (2000), Two views of hell: a biblical & theological dialogue .
  • (Inggris) Ellingsen, Mark (1999), Reclaiming Our Roots: Martin Luther to Martin Luther King .
  • (Inggris) Finger (2004), A contemporary Anabaptist theology: biblical, historical, constructive .
  • (Inggris) Froom (1966), The Conditionalist Faith of Our Fathers .
  • (Inggris) Gillman (2000). "Death and Afterlife, Judaic Doctrines of". Dalam Neusner, Jacob; Green, William Scott; Avery-Peck, Alan J. The Encyclopedia of Judaism. 1. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004110046. OCLC 313496275. 
  • (Inggris) Goldingay, John (2006), Old Testament Theology, 2 .
  • (Inggris) Grant, Miles (1895), Positive Theology .
  • (Inggris) de Greef, Wulfert (2008), The writings of John Calvin: an introductory guide .
  • (Inggris) Hoekema, Anthony A (1994), The Bible and the Future, Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans .
  • (Inggris) Milton, John (1825), De Doctrina Christiana, J. Smith .
  • (Inggris) Kries, Douglas (1997), Piety and humanity: essays on religion and early modern political philosophy .
  • (Inggris) Lake (2009), "Soul", dalam Silva; Tenney, The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, 5 (edisi ke-rev) .
  • (Inggris) Larsen (2001), "Heaven and Hell in the Preaching of the Gospel: A Historical Survey", Trinity Journal, 22 (2) .
  • (Latin) Luther, Martin (1830), Exegetica opera Latina, Gottlieb: Christopf Stephan Elsberger .
  • (Inggris) Marshall (2002), Beliefs and the dead in Reformation England .
  • (Inggris) Moody (1990), The Word of Truth: A Summary of Christian Doctrine Based on Biblical Revelation .
  • (Inggris) Neusner, Jacob (2000), The Encyclopedia of Judaism, 1 .
  • (Inggris) Neyrey (1985), "Soul", dalam Achtemeier; Harper; Row, Bible Dictionary, hlm. 982–83 .
  • (Inggris) Pool (1998), Against returning to Egypt: Exposing and Resisting Credalism in the Southern Baptist Convention .
  • (Inggris) Rudavsky (2010), Maimonides .
  • (Inggris) Vauchez (1966), The History of Conditionalism, Studies, 4, 5 (2), Andrews University Seminary .
  • (Inggris) Watts (1985), The Dissenters: From the Reformation to the French Revolution, Oxford .
  • (Inggris) Williams, George Huntston (1962), The Radical Reformation .
  • (Inggris) Wright (2003), The Resurrection of the Son of God .

Bacaan lanjutanSunting

  • (Jerman) Bultmann, Rudolf (1953). Theologie des Neuen Testaments. Tübingen: Mohr. hlm. 189–249.  (English translation Theology of the New Testament 2 vols, London: SCM, 1952, 1955). The leading scholarly reference supporting a holistic anthropology (similar to soul sleep)
  • (Inggris) Burns, Norman T (1972). Christian Mortalism from Tyndale to Milton. USA: Harvard. ISBN 0-674-12875-3.  Covers all major strands of psychopannychism and thnetopsychism in English Reformation and Revolution.
  • (Inggris) Jewitt, R (1971). Paul's Anthropological Terms. Leiden: Brill. 
  • (Jerman) Kümmel, WG (1948). Das Bild des Menschen im Neuen Testament. Zürich: Zwingli.  (English translation Man in the NT, London: Epworth, 1963 ).
  • (Inggris) Ladd, George Eldon (1974). A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. hlm. 457–78. 
  • (Inggris) Smith, Uriah (1897). Here & Hereafter or Man in Life and Death: The Reward of the Righteous and the Destiny of the Wicked. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association. , 349 pp. Comprehensive volume covering a multitude of texts for and against the doctrine of soul sleep.
  • (Inggris) Snobelen (1993), Revelation and Reason: The Development, Rationalization and Influence of Socinianism (honors thesis) .

Templat:Teologi Kristen