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Dalam ilmu etologi, kelompok fisi-fusi adalah kelompok yang jumlah anggota dan komposisinya berubah-ubah seiring berjalannya waktu karena anggotanya berpindah-pindah; hewan-hewan bergabung (fusi) saat sedang (misalnya) tidur di satu tempat, atau berpisah (fisi) saat (misalnya) sedang mencari makan dalam kelompok-kelompok yang lebih kecil. Untuk spesies yang hidup di kelompok fisi-fusi, komposisi kelompok bersifat dinamis.

Bentuk organisasi sosial seperti ini dapat ditemui dalam beberapa spesies primata (seperti simpanse, bonobo, babun hamadryass, gelada, orangutan,[1] monyet laba-laba,[2] dan manusia), gajah afrika,[3] sebagian besar karnivora seperti hyena bertotol[4] dan singa afrika,[5] cetacea seperti lumba-lumba,[6] ungulata seperti rusa, zebra,[7] dan jerapah,[8] serta ikan seperti ikan gupi.

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ van Schaik, Carel P. (1999). "The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Orangutans" (PDF). Biomedical and Life Sciences. 40 (1): 69–86. doi:10.1007/BF02557703. 
  2. ^ Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel; Denis Boyer; Vian P. Gómez (August 2006). "A complex social structure with fission–fusion properties can emerge from a simple foraging model" (PDF). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Springer-Verlag. 60 (4): 536–549. doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0197-x. 
  3. ^ Archie, Elizabeth A.; Cynthia J. Moss; Susan C. Alberts (March 2005). "The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 273: 513–522. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3361. 
  4. ^ Smith, Jennifer E.; Sandra K. Memenis; Kay E. Holekamp (March 2007). "Rank-related partner choice in the fission–fusion society of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)" (PDF). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Springer-Verlag. 61 (5): 753–765. doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0305-y. 
  5. ^ Lion Research Center. "Social Behavior > Group Living". University of Minnesota. Diakses tanggal 23 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Lusseau, David; Karsten Schneider; Oliver J. Boisseau; Patti Haase; Elisabeth Slooten; Steve M. Dawson (2003). "The bottlenose dolphin community of Doubtful Sound features a large proportion of long-lasting associations: Can geographic isolation explain this unique trait?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 54 (4): 396–405. doi:10.1007/s00265-003-0651-y. 
  7. ^ Rubenstein, D. I. & M. Hack (2004) Natural and sexual selection and the evolution of multi-level societies: insights from zebras with comparisons to primates. pp. 266–279. In: Sexual Selection in Primates: New and Comparative Perspectives. P. Kappeler and C. P. van Schaik (eds.). Cambridge University Press.
  8. ^ Bercovitch, F. B.; Berry, P. S. M. (2013). "Herd composition, kinship and fission–fusion social dynamics among wild giraffe". African Journal of Ecology. 51 (2): 206–216. doi:10.1111/aje.12024. 

ReferensiSunting

  • Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. (1996). "The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource availability." Journal of Human Evolution. 30:389-397
  • Smith, J. E., Kolowski, J. M., Graham, K. E., Dawes, S.E., and K. E. Holekamp.(2008). "Social and ecological determinants of fission-fusion dynamics in the spotted hyaena." Animal Behaviour 76:619-636.