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Sebuah gereja paroki Gereja Denmark di Holte, dengan Dannebrog berkibar di halaman depan

Gereja nasional adalah sebuah gereja Kristen yang diasosiasikan dengan kelompok etnis atau negara kebangsaan tertentu. Gagasan tersebut utamanya dibahas pada abad ke-19, saat timbul nasionalisme modern.

Negara dengan gereja nasionalSunting

Negara Gereja nasional Denominasi
  Albania Gereja Ortodoks Albania Ortodoks Timur
  Argentina Gereja Katolik di Argentina[1] Katolik Roma
  Armenia Gereja Apostolik Armenia[2] Ortodoks Oriental
  Austria Gereja Katolik di Austria[3] Katolik Roma
  Brasil Gereja Katolik di Brasil[4][5] Katolik Roma
  Bulgaria Gereja Ortodoks Bulgaria[6] Orthodoks Timur
  Siprus Gereja Siprus Ortodoks Timur
  Denmark Gereja Denmark[7] Lutheran
  Inggris Gereja Inggris[8] Anglikan
  Mesir Gereja Ortodoks Koptik Aleksandria[9] Ortodoks Oriental
  Estonia Gereja Lutheran Injili Estonia[10] Lutheran
  Etiopia Gereja Ortodoks Tewahedo Etiopia[11] Ortodoks Oriental
  Kepulauan Faroe Gereja Kepulauan Faroe[12] Lutheran
  Finlandia Gereja Lutheran Injili Finlandia[13] & Finnish Orthodox Church[14] Lutheran & Ortodoks Timur
  Prancis Gereja Katolik di Prancis Katolik Roma
  Georgia Gereja Ortodoks Georgia[15] Ortodoks Timur
  Jerman Gereja Injili Jerman[16] & Gereja Katolik[16] Protestan[a] & Katolik Roma
  Yunani Gereja Yunani[17] Ortodoks Timur
  Islandia Gereja Islandia[18] Lutheran
  India Nasrani Katolik Timur dan Ortodoks Oriental
  Liechtenstein Gereja Katolik di Liechtenstein[19] Katolik Roma
  Malta Gereja Katolik di Malta [20] Katolik Roma
  Meksiko Gereja Katolik di Meksiko[21][22][23] Katolik Roma
  Irlandia Utara Gereja Irlandia Anglikan
  Republik Irlandia Gereja Katolik di Irlandia Katolik Roma
  Italia Gereja Katolik di Italia Katolik Roma
  Lebanon Gereja Maronit[24] Katolik Timur
  Makedonia Gereja Ortodoks Makedonia[25] Ortodoks Timur
   Monako Gereja Katolik di Monako[26] Katolik Roma
  Norwegia Gereja Norwegia[27] Lutheran
  Peru Gereja Katolik di Peru[28] Katolik Roma
  Polandia Gereja Katolik di Polandia[29][30][31][32] Katolik Roma
  Portugal Gereja Katolik di Portugal Katolik Roma
  Filipina Gereja Katolik di Filipina[33] Katolik Roma
  Rumania Gereja Ortodoks Rumania Ortodoks Timur
  Rusia Gereja Ortodoks Rusia[34] Ortodoks Timur
  Skotlandia Gereja Skotlandia[35] Reformed
  Serbia Gereja Ortodoks Serbia[36] Ortodoks Timur
  Spanyol Gereja Katolik di Spanyol [37] Katolik Roma
  Swedia Gereja Swedia[38] Lutheran
  Tuvalu Gereja Tuvalu[39] Reformed
  Ukraina Gereja Ortodoks Ukraina[40], Gereja Katolik Yunani Ukraina Ortodoks Timur, Katolik Timur

KritikSunting

Karl Barth mengecam penekanan "nasionalisasi" Allah Kristen sebagai kesesatan, khususnya dalam konteks gereja nasional yang memaklumkan perang melawan negara Kristen lain pada Perang Dunia I.[41]

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Protestan Bersatu (Lutheran & Reformed), Lutheran, dan Reformed

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ SJ, Gustavo Morello (1 July 2015). The Catholic Church and Argentina's Dirty War. Oxford University Press. hlm. 4. ISBN 9780190273002. The "re-establishing" of Catholicism as a national Church was the reward for the bishops's silence. 
  2. ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 53. ISBN 9781438110257. The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes referred to as the Gregorian Armenian Church by Western scholars, serves as the national church of the Armenian people. 
  3. ^ David Bowman, William (1 December 1999). Priest and Parish in Vienna: 1780 to 1880. Boston, MA : Humanities Press. hlm. 1. ISBN 9780391040946. The Catholic Church was one of the principal forces that could help keep the lands of Habsburg monarchy together throughout its long history. Catholicism was not only the traditional religion of much of Austrian society, 
  4. ^ The Catholic Church in Brazil https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/faq/catholic-church-brazil
  5. ^ "Yet the national church appeared to agree upon the approach to pre-influence and it behaved accordingly. The Brazilian Church was socially more advanced than any other Latin America Church" The Political Transformation Of the Brazilian Catholic Church Thomas Bruneau - Umi Out-of-print Books on Demand - 1989
  6. ^ Hall, Richard C. (1 January 2012). The Modern Balkans: A History. Reaktion Books. hlm. 51. ISBN 9781780230061. While this did not restore the Ohrid patriarchate, it did acknowledge the separation between the Orthodox church in Constantinople and the Bulgarian Orthodox church, which was now free to develop as the Bulgarian national church. 
  7. ^ Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas; Venhorst, Claudia; Brenda Mathijssen (September 2013). Changing European Death Ways. LIT Verlag Münster. hlm. 178. ISBN 9783643900678. Simultaneously the church tax, ministers being public servants, and the status of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the national church indicate that the state lends its support to the church. 
  8. ^ Britannicus (1834). The Church of England. hlm. 17. Having, in my last, arrive at the great points which I wished to establish--the apostolicity, independence, and authority of the Church of England; and that she is necessarily the National Church, because Christianity is the National Religion. 
  9. ^ Makari, Peter E. (2007). Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt. Syracuse University Press. hlm. 42. ISBN 9780815631446. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the historic, and national, church of Egypt and is deeply tied to a monastic tradition of spiritual growth and preparation for ministry of monks and nuns, a tradition that continues to thrive. 
  10. ^ Elvy, Peter (1991). Opportunities and Limitations in Religious Broadcasting. Edinburgh: CTPI. hlm. 23. ISBN 9781870126151. Denominationally Estonia is Lutheran. During the time of national independence (1918-1940), 80% of the population belonged to the Lutheran National Church, about 17% were Orthodox Christians and the rest belonged to Free Churches. 
  11. ^ Lorance, Cody (2008). Ethnographic Chicago. hlm. 140. ISBN 9780615218625. Her findings show that the development of the national church of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which began in the fourth century and made Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, was also a major contributor to national development in the fields of independence, social progress, national unity and empowerment, literary development, arts, architecture, music, publication, and declaration of a national language and leadership, both spiritually and military. 
  12. ^ Proctor, James (13 May 2013). Faroe Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. hlm. 19. ISBN 9781841624563. Religion is important to the Faroese and 84% of the population belongs to the established national church in the islands, the Evangelical—Lutheran Foroya Kirkja, which has 61 churches in the Faroes and three out of every four marriages are held in one. 
  13. ^ Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Britanncia Educational Publishing. 1 June 2013. hlm. 77. ISBN 9781615309955. One of Finland's national churches is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Evankelis—luterilainen—kirkko), or simply the Church of Finland. 
  14. ^ Kaplan, Robert B.; Baldauf, Richard B. (2005). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. hlm. 147. ISBN 9781853598111. Currently, a clear majority of the population belongs to the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 1% of the population are members of the other national church, the Finnish Orthodox Church (see Table 7). 
  15. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 1195. ISBN 9781598842043. The Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) is the Eastern Orthodox Christian body that serves as the national church of the Caucasian country of Georgia. The great majority of Georgians are members of the church. 
  16. ^ a b Gelder, Craig Van (2008). The Missional Church and Denominations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. hlm. 71. ISBN 9780802863584. Germany's two churches (the National Church for the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church) were “proper”with respect to their polities. 
  17. ^ Miller, James Edward (2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. hlm. 12. ISBN 9780807832479. The creation of a national church of Greece, which the patriarch reluctantly recognized in 1850, set a pattern for other emerging Balkan states to form national churches independent of Constantinople. 
  18. ^ Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (1 September 2006). Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. hlm. 85. ISBN 9780761420743. The National Church of Iceland, formally called the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, is the state religion, and the president of Iceland is its supreme authority. 
  19. ^ "The Roman Catholic Church is the State Church and as such enjoys the full protection of the State; other confessions shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order." Constitution Religion. di Wayback Machine (archived 26 March 2009) (archived from the original on 2009-03-26).
  20. ^ "Constitution of Malta (Article 2)". mjha.gov.mt. 
  21. ^ Ricardo Hernández-Forcada, "The Effect of International Treaties on Religious Freedom in Mexico". 2002 BYU L. Rev. 301(202).<l. 35, Issue 4.
  22. ^ Roberto Blancarte, "Recent Changes in Church-State Relations in Mexico: An Historical Approach." Journal of Church & State, Autumn 1993, Vo-559 (1996).
  23. ^ Mexico Is Home To World's Second Largest Catholic Population
  24. ^ Ajami, Fouad (30 May 2012). The Syrian Rebellion. Hoover Press. hlm. 70. ISBN 9780817915063. The Maronite Church is a national church. Its creed is attachment to Lebanon and its independence. The founding ethos of the Maronites is their migration from the Syrian plains to the freedom and “purity” of their home in Mount Lebanon. 
  25. ^ Rae, Heather (15 August 2002). State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 278. ISBN 9780521797085. The creation of a national Church was also central to building national identity, with the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC) established in 1967, much to the outrage of the Serbian Orthodox Church. 
  26. ^ Joshua Project (2018). "Ethnic People Groups of Monaco". Joshua Project. Diakses tanggal 21 December 2018. 
  27. ^ Cristofori, Rinaldo; Ferrari, Silvio (28 February 2013). Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. hlm. 194. ISBN 9781409497332. The State shall support all religious communities including the Church of Norway on an equal footing, but the Church of Norway shall 'remain the people's Church and is as such supported by the State', thereby upholding its function as a national Church. 
  28. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Peru" (PDF). Within an independent and autonomous system, the State recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the historical, cultural, and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation. The State respects other denominations and may establish forms of collaboration with them. 
  29. ^ Poland's church struggles to contain its latest crisis
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ Is Poland Still a Catholic Stronghold?
  32. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". 1997-04-02. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the Council of Ministers. 
  33. ^ Cornelio, Jayeel Serrano (12 July 2016). Being Catholic in the Contemporary Philippines: Young People Reinterpreting Religion. Routledge. ISBN 978-1138803343. 
  34. ^ Prizel, Ilya (13 August 1998). National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 155. ISBN 9780521576970. Although nominally a national church, the Russian Orthodox Church developed from a defensive, nativist institution to the ideological foundation of an imperial idea. 
  35. ^ Morton, Andrew R. (1994). God's Will in a Time of Crisis: A Colloquium Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Baillie Commission. Edinburgh: CTPI. hlm. 14. ISBN 9781870126274. In October 1929, the Established Church and the United Free Church were united to form the national Church of Scotland. 
  36. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (1 January 1975). The Chetniks. Stanford University Press. hlm. 176. ISBN 9780804708579. He also had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which as a national church long identified with the national destiny and aspirations of the Serbian people was naturally inclined to identify itself with the movement that had the backing of the king and the Servian-dominated government-in-exile. 
  37. ^ Spanish Catholicism: an Historical Overview Stanley Payne - University Of Wisconsin Press - 1984 ISBN 0299098044
  38. ^ Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 354. ISBN 9780521814560. The Church of Sweden could be characterised as 'national church' or 'folk church', but not as 'state church', because the independence of the church was expressed by the establishment of a Church Assembly in 1863. 
  39. ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 845. ISBN 9781438119137. A second important cultural feature of the Tuvaluan nation is the centrality of the national church, the Ekalesia o Tuvalu, or Church of Tuvalu, in which up to 97 percent of the population claims membership. 
  40. ^ Velychenko, Stephen (1 January 1992). National History as Cultural Process: A Survey of the Interpretations of Ukraine's Past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Historical Writing from the Earliest Times to 1914. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. hlm. 199. ISBN 9780920862759. For this reason the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was the true democratic national church of the Ukrainian nation. 
  41. ^ Barth, Ethnics, ed. Braun, transl. Bromiley, New York, 1981, p. 305.
  • William Reed Huntington, A national church, Bedell lectures, Scribner's, 1897.