Empat Suku Barbar merupakan istilah dari bahasa Tionghoa yang bersifat menghina yang ditunjukkan kepada beberapa orang non-Tionghoa yang membagi Tiongkok Kuno, yaitu, para Dongyi 東夷 "Orang Barbar dari Timur", Nanman 南蠻 "Orang Barbar dari Selatan", Xirong 西戎 "Orang Barbar dari Barat", dan Beidi 北狄 "Orang Barbar dari Utara".

Empat Suku Barbar
Nama Tionghoa
Makna harfiah: empat suku barbar
Nama Jepang
Hiragana: しい
Nama Korea
Nama Vietnam
Quốc ngữ: tứ di


  • Brindley, Erica (2003), "Barbarians or Not? Ethnicity and Changing Conceptions of the Ancient Yue (Viet) Peoples, ca. 400–50 BC", Asia Major 16.1: 1–32.
  • Chan, Hok-Lam (1968), "The "Chinese Barbarian Officials" in the Foreign Tributary Missions to China during the Ming Dynasty," Journal of the American Oriental Society 88.3: 411-418.
  • Chen Zhi (2004), "From Exclusive Xia to Inclusive Zhu-Xia: The Conceptualisation of Chinese Identity in Early China", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 14.3: 185-205.
  • Creel, Herrlee G. (1970), The Origins of Statecraft in China, The University of Chicago Press.
  • DeFrancis, John, ed. (2003), ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary, University of Hawaii Press.
  • Huang Yang (2013), "Perceptions of the Barbarian in Early Greece and China Diarsipkan 2014-10-17 di Wayback Machine.", CHS Research Bulletin 2.1, translating Guo Moruo, (1933, 1982), 卜辭通纂, 第五六九片.
  • Jettmar, Karl (1983), "The Origins of Chinese Civilization: Soviet Views," In Keightley, David N., ed. The Origins of Chinese civilization, University of California Press.
  • Knoblock, John, tr. (1988), Xunzi, A Translation and Study of the Complete Works, Volume 1, Books 1-6, Stanford University Press.
  • Knoblock, John and Jeffrey Riegel, trs. (2000), The Annals of Lü Buwei: A Complete Translation and Study, Stanford University Press.
  • Lau D.C. (1970, 2003), Mencius, Penguin Books.
  • Legge, James, tr. (1865), The Chinese Classics, Vol. III, The Shoo King, Oxford University Press.
  • Legge, James, tr. (1885), The Li Ki, 2 vols, Oxford University Press.
  • Liang Shih-chiu 梁實秋and Chang Fang-chieh 張芳杰, eds. (1971), Far East Chinese-English Dictionary, Far East Book Co.
  • Lin Yutang (1972), Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Chinese University Press.
  • Liu, Lydia (2004), The Clash of Empires, Harvard University Press.
  • Liu Junping and Deyuan Huang (2006), "The Evolution of Tianxia Cosmology and Its Philosophical Implications", Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1.4: 517-538.
  • Liu Xiaoyuan (2004), Frontier Passages: Ethnopolitics and the Rise of Chinese Communism, 1921-1945 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004),10-11.
  • Mair, Victor H., tr. (1994), Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu, Bantam Books.
  • Major, John S., Sarah Queen, Andrew Meyer, and Harold Roth (2010), The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China, by Liu An, King of Huainan, Columbia University Press.
  • Pines, Yuri (2005). "Beasts or humans: Pre-Imperial origins of Sino-Barbarian Dichotomy", in Mongols, Turks and Others: Eurasian nomads and the sedentary world, eds. R. Amitai and M. Biran, Brill, pp. 59–102.
  • Pu Muzhou (2005), Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China, SUNY Press.
  • Pulleyblank, E. G., (1983), "The Chinese and Their Neighbors in Prehistoric and Early Historic Times", in Keightley, David N., ed. The Origins of Chinese civilization, University of California Press.
  • Rickett, W. Allyn, tr. (1998), Guanzi. Princeton University Press.
  • Schipper, Kristofer (1994), "Purity and Strangers Shifting Boundaries in Medieval Taoism", T'oung Pao 80.3: 61-81.
  • Schuessler, Axel (2007), ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese, University of Hawaii Press.
  • Shin, Leo (2006), The Making of the Chinese State: Ethnicity and Expansion on the Ming Borderlands, Cambridge University Press.
  • Waley, Arthur (1938), The Analects of Confucius, Vintage.
  • Watson, Burton (2003), Mozi: Basic Writings, Columbia University Press.
  • Wieger, Léon (1927), Chinese Characters: Their Origin, Etymology, History, Classification and Signification. A Thorough Study from Chinese Documents, tr. by L. Davrout, 2nd edition, Dover reprint.
  • Wild, Norman (1945), "Materials for the Study of the Ssŭ i Kuan 四夷譯館 (Bureau of Translators)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 11.3: 617-640.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: a manual, revised and enlarged ed., Harvard University Asia Center.
  • Wu, K. C. (1982), The Chinese Heritage, Crown Publishers.
  • Zhao Gang (2006), "Reinventing China: Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity", Modern China, 32.1: 3-30.