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Bolshevisme Yahudi, juga Yudeo–Bolshevisme, adalah sebuah tuduhan antisemitik dan antikomunis, yang menuduh bahwa Yahudi adalah cikal bakal dari Revolusi Rusia pada 1917 dan bahwa mereka memegang kekuasaan utama di kalangan Bolshevik. Selain itu, teori konspirasi Komunisme Yahudi menyatakan bahwa Yahudi mendominasi gerakan-gerakan Komunis di dunia, dan berkaitan dengan teori konspirasi Pemerintahan Pendudukan Zionis, yang menyatakan bahwa Yahudi mengendalikan politik dunia.[1]

Pada 1917, setelah revolusi Oktober, istilah tersebut dijadikan judul pamflet Bolshevisme Yahudi, yang tampil dalam propaganda rasis pasukan anti-komunis gerakan Putih pada Perang Saudara Rusia (1918–22). Partai Nazi di Jerman dan German-American Bund di Amerika Serikat memajukan teori anti-Semitik kepada para pengikut, simpatisan dan rekan penjelajah mereka pada 1930an.[2][3][4][5] Di Polandia, "Yudeo-Bolshevisme", yang dikenal sebagai "Żydokomuna", menjadi sebuah stereotipe antisemitik yang banyak menyebar pada periode antar-perang.[6]

Istilah "Bolshevisme Yahudi", "Komunisme Yahudi" dan "Pemerintahan Pendudukan Zionis" dipakai oleh sayap kanan jauh sebagai istilah untuk anggapan palsu bahwa Komunisme adalah konspirasi Yahudi.[7]

Daftar isi

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Alderman 1983.
  2. ^ Partridge, Christopher and Geaves, Ron. (2007). “Antisemitism, Conspiracy Culture, Christianity, and Islam: The History and Contemporary Religious Significance of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion”, The Invention of Sacred Tradition, James R. Lewis and Olav Hammer, Eds. pp. 75–95. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online doi:10.1017/CBO9780511488450.005 [Accessed 12 April 2016]
  3. ^ Frederickson, Kari (1996). "CATHRINE CURTIS AND CONSERVATIVE ISOLATIONIST WOMEN, 1939-1941". The Historian. 58 (4): 826. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1996.tb00977.x. ISSN 0018-2370. 
  4. ^ Glen Jeansonne (9 June 1997). Women of the Far Right: The Mothers' Movement and World War II. University of Chicago Press. hlm. 8. ISBN 978-0-226-39589-0. 
  5. ^ Laqueur, Walter Ze'ev (1965-01-01). Russia and Germany. Transaction Publishers. hlm. 105. ISBN 9781412833547. 
  6. ^ Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, "Żydzi w kierownictwie UB. Stereotyp czy rzeczywistość?", Biuletyn IPN (11/2005), pp. 37-42
  7. ^ Philip Mendes (2010). "Debunking the myth of Jewish communism". 

ReferensiSunting

  • Alderman, G. (1983). The Jewish Community in British Politics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. hlm. 102. 
  • Ascher, Abraham (1992). The Revolution of 1905. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. 
  • Churchill, Winston (8 February 1920). "Zionism versus Bolshevism". Illustrated Sunday Herald. 
  • Evans, Richard J. (1989). In Hitler's Shadow West German Historians and the Attempt to Escape the Nazi Past. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-394-57686-2. 
  • Figes, Orlando (2008). The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. London: Picador. 
  • Förster, Jürgen (2005). "The German Military's Image of Russia". Dalam Erickson, Ljubica; Erickson, Mark. Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 
  • Friedman, Isaiah (1997). Germany, Turkey, and Zionism 1897-1918. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0765804075
  • Fromkin, David (2009). A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. Holt Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0805088090
  • Gerrits, André (2009). The Myth of Jewish Communism: A Historical Interpretation. Peter Lang. 
  • Herf, Jeffrey (2008). The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 
  • Hillgruber, Andreas (1987). "War in the East and the Extermination of the Jews" (PDF). 18. Yad Vashem Studies: 103–132. 
  • Himmler, Heinrich (1936). Die Schutzstaffel als Antibolschewistische Kampforganisation (dalam bahasa German). Franz Eher Verlag.  Hapus pranala luar di parameter |title= (bantuan)
  • Hoffman, Stefani; Mendelsohn, Ezra (2008). The Revolution of 1905 and Russia's Jews. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 
  • Kellogg, Michael (2008). The Russian Roots of Nazism. White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521070058. 
  • Kershaw, Ian (1999). Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-192579-0. 
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-027239-0. 
  • Laqueur, Walter (1990). Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. 
  • Lebzelter, Gisela (1978). Political anti-Semitism in England: 1918-1939. Oxford: Macmillan. ISBN 9780333242513. 
  • Levin, Nora (1988). The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917. New York University Press: New York. 
  • "Mohammad Ali Ramin, Advisor to Iranian President Ahmadinejad: 'Hitler Was Jewish'". Middle East Media Research Institute. 3 January 2007. 
  • McMeekin, Sean (2012). The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany's Bid for World Power. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674064324
  • Moss, Walter (2005). A History of Russia: Since 1855. Anthem Press. ISBN 1-84331-034-1. 
  • Pinkus, Benjamin (1990). The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Pipes, Daniel (1997). Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where it Comes From. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83131-7. 
  • "Radicalism and Reactionary Politics in America". The Hall-Hoag Collection of Dissenting and Extremist Printed Propaganda. Woodbridge: Primary Source Microfilm. 2005. 
  • Resis, Albert (2000). "The Fall of Litvinov: Harbinger of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact". Europe-Asia Studies. 52 (1). JSTOR 153750. 
  • Ro'i, Yaacov (1995). Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4619-9. 
  • Webb, James (1976). Occult Establishment: The Dawn of the New Age and the Occult Establishment. Open Court Publishing. 
  • Wein, Berel (1976). Triumph of Survival: The Jews in the Modern Era 1600-1990. Brooklyn: Mesorah. 
  • Witte, Sophie (24 March 1907). "Just Before the Duma Opened" (PDF). New York Times. 

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