Buka menu utama

Agama di Estonia (2011)[1][2]

  Ireligius (54.14%)
  Ortodoks Timur (16.15%)
  Lutheranisme (9.91%)
  Kristen lainnya (2.00%)
  Agama lainnya (1.25%)
  Tidak memberitahu (16.55%)

Dalam sejarahnya, Estonia merupakan negara Protestan Lutheran,[3][4][5] tetapi kini merupakan salah satu negara paling tidak beragama di dunia dan hanya 14% warga yang menyatakan agama sebagai hal penting dalam kehidupan mereka.[6]

Dari antara mereka yang beragama, sebagian besar menganut agama Kristen. Terdapat paling tidak 90 denominasi Kristen yang diikuti, dan yang paling penting adalah Kristen Ortodoks dan Lutheranisme.[7] Menurut Ringo Ringvee, "agama tidak pernah memainkan peranan yang penting dalam medan tempur politik atau ideologis", sementara "kecenderungan hubungan erat antara negara dengan gereja Lutheran pada akhir tahun 1930-an diakhiri oleh pendudukan Soviet pada tahun 1940". Ia juga menyatakan bahwa "ikatan tradisi agama di sebagian besar keluarga terputus" akibat kebijakan ateisme negara Uni Soviet.[4][8] Sebelum Perang Dunia II, 80% penduduk Estonia tercatat menganut agama Protestan.

Ortodoks Timur telah menggantikan Lutheranisme sebagai denominasi Kristen terbesar di Estonia antara sensus tahun 2001 hingga 2011 karena semakin banyak orang Estonia yang tidak beragama. Lutheranisme masih menjadi agama yang paling populer di antara orang Estonia yang beragama (11% beragama Lutheran), sementara agama Ortodoks Timur kebanyakan dianut oleh minoritas Slavia (sekitar 45% beragama Ortodoks). Menurut hasil penelitian Universitas Tartu, orang Estonia yang tidak beragama belum tentu ateis; malahan pada tahun 2010-an jumlah penganut kepercayaan Neopagan, Buddhisme dan Hindu bertambah di antara mereka yang menyatakan diri "tidak beragama".[9]

Data sensusSunting

Agama Sensus 2000[10] Sensus 2011[1]
Jumlah % Jumlah %
Kristen Ortodoks 143,554 12.80 176,773 16.15
Lutheranisme 152,237 13.57 108,513 9.91
Baptis 6,009 0.54 4,507 0.41
Katolik 5,745 0.51 4,501 0.41
Saksi Yehova 3,823 0.34 3,938 0.36
Pemercaya Lama 2,515 0.22 2,605 0.24
Kongregasi Bebas Kristen 223 0.02 2,189 0.20
Agama asli (maausk) 1,058 0.09 1,925 0.18
Kepercayaan Taara 1,047 0.10
Pentakosta 2,648 0.24 1,855 0.17
Muslim 1,387 0.12 1,508 0.14
Adventis 1,561 0.14 1,194 0.11
Buddha 622 0.06 1,145 0.10
Methodis 1,455 0.13 1,098 0.10
Agama lainnya 4,995 0.45 8,074 0.74
Tidak beragama 450,458 40.16 592,588 54.14
Tidak menyatakan agamanya 343,292 30.61 181,104 16.55
Jumlah 1,121,582 100.00 1,094,564 99.00

1Berusia lebih dari 15 tahun.

Berdasarkan kelompok etnisSunting

Afiliasi berdasarkan kelompok etnis menurut Sensus 2011[1]
Kelompok etnis Jumlah penduduk[11] Ortodoks Lutheran Baptis Katolik Saksi Yehova Pemercaya Lama Pentakosta Muslim Buddhisme Neopaganisme Estonia Kristen lainnya Agama lainnya Tidak beragama atau tidak menyatakan agama
N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
Estonia 902,547 20,585 2.28 104,691 11.5 3,648 0.4 1,314 0.14 1,982 0.2 194 0.02 1,086 0.1 148 0.0 978 0.1 2,941 0.3 4,439 0.49 2,759 0.3 605,822 67.12
Rusia 326,235 142,971 43.8 862 0.26 515 0.15 560 0.17 1,322 0.4 2,368 0.72 512 0.15 107 0.03 114 0.03 1,344 0.41 687 0.21 140,223 42.9
Ukraina 22,573 10,816 47.9 99 0.43 155 0.68 121 0.53 330 1.46 147 0.65 252 1.1 159 0.7 9,416 41.7
Belarusia 12,579 6,188 49.1 44 0.34 44 0.34 598 4.7 55 0.43 22 0.17 55 0.43 45 0.35 5,188 41.2
Finlandia 7,589 818 10.7 1,948 25.6 36 0.47 33 0.43 108 1.4 7 0.1 21 0.27 9 0.11 8 0.1 45 0.59 29 0.38 4,131 54.4
Tatar 1,993 174 8.7 5 0.25 4 0.2 5 0.25 7 0.35 604 30.3 8 0.4 8 0.4 1,067 53.5
Latvia 1,764 254 14.3 221 12.5 9 0.5 140 7.9 7 0.39 3 0.17 6 0.34 13 0.73 8 0.45 954 54
Jerman 1,544 274 17.7 203 13.1 26 1.68 78 5 14 0.9 6 0.38 31 2 15 0.97 734 47.4

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ a b c "PC0454: AT LEAST 15-YEAR-OLD PERSONS BY RELIGION, SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 31 DECEMBER 2011". Statistics Estonia. 31 December 2011. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "PHC 2011: over a quarter of the population are affiliated with a particular religion". Statistics Estonia. 29 April 2013. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 June 2015). Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition (dalam bahasa English). Springer. hlm. 131. ISBN 9781493922796. Estonia is considered Protestant when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia as a Protestant ex-Communist society. 
  4. ^ a b Triin Edovald; Michelle Felton; John Haywood; Rimvydas Juskaitis; Michael Thomas Kerrigan; Simon Lund-Lack; Nicholas Middleton; Josef Miskovsky; Ihar Piatrowicz; Lisa Pickering; Dace Praulins; John Swift; Vytautas Uselis; Ilivi Zajedova (2010). World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Marshall Cavendish. hlm. 1066. ISBN 9780761478966. It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia is the European Union (EU) country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief. This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union annexed Estonia in 1940, church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from 1941 through 1944, and in World War II (1939-1945), and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia under Soviet rule 1944 until 1989, when some measure of tolerance was introduced. 
  5. ^ Rausing, Sigrid (2004). History, Memory, and Identity in Post-Soviet Estonia: The End of a Collective Farm (dalam bahasa English). Oxford University Press. hlm. 96. ISBN 9780199263189. Protestantism has done much to inform the moral world view of the Estonians, particularly the process of distinguishing themselves from the Russians. 
  6. ^ "Estonians least religious in the world". EU Observer. 11 February 2009. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Eestis on 90 usuvoolu: lilla leegi hoidjad, kopimistid, tulekummardajad..." [Estonia has 90 religious affiliations: Keepers of the violet flame, Kopimists, Fire worshipers]. Postimees. 29 April 2013. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  8. ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 September 2011). "Is Estonia really the least religious country in the world?". The Guardian. For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church [...] ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940. 
  9. ^ Martin Noorkõiv (6 November 2012). "The Estonian Atheist Experiment". University of Tartu Blog.
  10. ^ "PC231: POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION AND ETHNIC NATIONALITY". Statistics Estonia. 31 March 2000. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  11. ^ PC0428: POPULATION BY ETHNIC NATIONALITY, SEX AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE, 31 DECEMBER 2011