Tepi Barat (bahasa Arab: الضفة الغربية, aḍ-Ḍiffä l-Ġarbīyä, bahasa Ibrani: יהודה ושומרון, Hagadah Hama'aravit), juga dikenal dengan nama "Yudea dan Samaria" adalah sebuah wilayah daratan di barat sungai Yordan. Tepi Barat dan Jalur Gaza merupakan wilayah Palestina yang dideklarasikan pada 1988. Sejak 1967 sebagian besar wilayah Tepi Barat diduduki Israel.
Wilayah "Tepi Barat", termasuk Yerusalem Timur, mempunyai luas tanah 5.640 km2 dan luas perairan 220 km2, yaitu bagian barat laut dari Laut Mati. Dihuni sekitar 2.622.544 penduduk (Juni 2012). Lebih dari 80 persen, sekitar 2.100.000 orang, adalah keturunan Arab Palestina, dan kira-kira 500.000 orang adalah keturunan Yahudi Israel yang tinggal di Tepi Barat, termasuk 192.000 yang tinggal di Yerusalem Timur, di pemukiman-pemukiman Israel. Komunitas internasional menganggap pemukiman Israel di Tepi Barat, termasuk Yerusalem Timur, ilegal menurut hukum internasional, meskipun Israel membantahnya.
- ^ a b c "The World Factbook – Middle East: West Bank". Central Intelligence Agency See also Geography of the West Bank.
- ^ "IDF: More than 300,000 settlers live in West Bank". Haaretz. Israel. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2010.
- ^ Roberts, Adam. "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 84 (1): 85–86.
The international community has taken a critical view of both deportations and settlements as being contrary to international law. General Assembly resolutions have condemned the deportations since 1969, and have done so by overwhelming majorities in recent years. Likewise, they have consistently deplored the establishment of settlements, and have done so by overwhelming majorities throughout the period (since the end of 1976) of the rapid expansion in their numbers. The Security Council has also been critical of deportations and settlements; and other bodies have viewed them as an obstacle to peace, and illegal under international law.
- ^ Pertile, Marco (2005). "'Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory': A Missed Opportunity for International Humanitarian Law?". Dalam Conforti, Benedetto; Bravo, Luigi. The Italian Yearbook of International Law. 14. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. hlm. 141. ISBN 978-90-04-15027-0.
the establishment of the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has been considered illegal by the international community and by the majority of legal scholars.
- ^ Barak-Erez, Daphne (2006). "Israel: The security barrier—between international law, constitutional law, and domestic judicial review". International Journal of Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press. 4 (3): 548.
The real controversy hovering over all the litigation on the security barrier concerns the fate of the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories. Since 1967, Israel has allowed and even encouraged its citizens to live in the new settlements established in the territories, motivated by religious and national sentiments attached to the history of the Jewish nation in the land of Israel. This policy has also been justified in terms of security interests, taking into consideration the dangerous geographic circumstances of Israel before 1967 (where Israeli areas on the Mediterranean coast were potentially threatened by Jordanian control of the West Bank ridge). The international community, for its part, has viewed this policy as patently illegal, based on the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention that prohibit moving populations to or from territories under occupation.
- ^ Drew, Catriona (1997). "Self-determination and population transfer". Dalam Bowen, Stephen. Human rights, self-determination and political change in the occupied Palestinian territories. International studies in human rights. 52. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. hlm. 151–152. ISBN 978-90-411-0502-8.
It can thus clearly be concluded that the transfer of Israeli settlers into the occupied territories violates not only the laws of belligerent occupation but the Palestinian right of self-determination under international law. The question remains, however, whether this is of any practical value. In other words, given the view of the international community that the Israeli settlements are illegal under the law if belligerent occupation …