Pertempuran Malaya

Pertempuran Malaya adalah perang terbuka antara Sekutu dan Jepang di Malaya yang berlangsung sejak 8 Desember 1941 hingga 31 Januari 1942, sebagai bagian dari Perang Dunia II. Kampanye ini didominasi oleh pertempuran darat antara pihak Persemakmuran Britania dan Jepang. Bagi orang-orang Inggris, India, Australia dan Malaya yang mati-matian berusaha mempertahankan koloni ini, perang ini menjadi bencana karena berakhir dengan kekalahan dan awal masa-masa kerja paksa bagi mereka yang tertangkap.

Kejatuhan Malaya, dan kemudian Singapura, menjadi lonceng pertanda kematian bagi Hindia Belanda, yang jatuh kurang dari dua bulan kemudian dan berarti akan mengakhiri penjajahan yang telah berlangsung ratusan tahun di wilayah Asia Tenggara.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b c Paul H. Kratoska (30 April 2018). The Japanese Occupation of Malaya and Singapore, 1941-45: A Social and Economic History. NUS Press. hlm. 299–. ISBN 978-9971-69-638-2. 
  2. ^ Frank Owen (2001). The Fall of Singapore. England: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-139133-2. 
  3. ^ a b Allen (2013) pp. 300-301.
  4. ^ Sandhu 1987, p. 32.
  5. ^ Allen (2013) pp. 300-301
  6. ^ Allen, Louis. Singapore 1941–1942: Revised Edition, Routledge, 2013. p. 169
  7. ^ Toland, John. The Rising Sun New York: The Modern Library, 2003. p. 272
  8. ^ Corfield & Corfield (2012), p. 743. The names of all of those who died are listed in the book.
  9. ^ Wigmore 1957, p. 382
  10. ^ Tsuji (1960) p. 220. 1,793 dead and 2,772 wounded in Malaya; 1,714 dead and 3,378 wounded at Singapore.

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Between Singapore and Malaya, the Japanese captured 300 field guns, 180 mortars/howitzers, 100 anti-aircraft guns, 54 fortress guns, 108 1-pounder guns (likely a typo meant to say 2-pounder), and, on the mainland, another 330 guns of unspecified type. Kevin Blackburn, Karl Hack. "Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress". Routledge. 1 November 2003. Page 193 gives a total of 225 25-pounders and 18-pounders for the campaign, but this number excludes 4.5-inch and 3.7-inch howitzers and 75mm field guns, as well as fortress guns. Page 74 gives a total of 226 for British artillery pieces during the siege of Singapore itself, including fortress guns (172 without them).
  2. ^ 50 armoured vehicles were captured on Malaya and 200 on Singapore, mostly Universal Carriers and armoured cars; includes Mark VI 23 tanks.
  3. ^ 1.800 truk dan 13.600 mobil dan kendaraan lain hilang dari tangan Jepang baik di Singapura maupun di daratan.

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