Peperangan Indian Amerika

Peperangan Indian Amerika (juga dikenal sebagai Peperangan Indian atau Peperangan First Nations; bahasa Prancis: Guerres des Premières Nations) adalah nama kolektif dari berbagai konflik bersenjata yang dilakukan oleh pemerintahan dan kolonis, dan kemudian oleh pemerintahan dan pemukim Eropa, melawan berbagai suku Indian Amerika dan First Nation. Konflik tersebut terjadi di Amerika Utara dari masa pemukiman kolonial terawal pada abad ke-17 sampai awal abad ke-20.

Peperangan Indian Amerika
Cavalry and Indians.JPG
Sebuah kromolitograf tahun 1899 dari Kavaleri Amerika Serikat yang mengejar Indian Amerika (seniman tidak diketahui)
Tanggal1609–1924 (intermittent)
LokasiAmerika Utara
Hasil
  • Kedaulatan berbagai kombantan meluas atau hilang
  • Banyak risalah, perjanjian dan gencatan senjata dibuat dan dilanggar oleh para kombatan
  • Pemulihan Indian dilakukan di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada
Pihak terlibat
Indian Amerika
First Nations
Inuit
Aleut
Yupik
Negara Muskogee
Métis
Pemerintahan Sementara Saskatchewan
 Kekaisaran Spanyol
 Kerajaan Prancis
 Kerajaan Inggris
 Kerajaan Skotlandia
Kekaisaran Britania
Kekaisaran Belanda
Kekaisaran Swedia
Hudson's Bay Company
North West Company
 Dominion Canada
 Kekaisaran Rusia
 Amerika Serikat
 Republik Vermont
 Florida Barat
 Florida Timur
Bendera Denmark Denmark
 Meksiko
Republik Indian Stream
 Republik Texas
 Republik California
 Negara Konfederasi

ReferensiSunting

KutipanSunting

SumberSunting

  • "Named Campaigns: Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Diakses tanggal 2005-12-13. 
  • Parry, Mae. "The Northwestern Shoshone". In A History of Utah's American Indians, ed. Forrest S. Cuch. Utah State University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-91373-849-8.
  • Parker, Aaron. The Sheepeater Indian Campaign (Chamberlin Basin Country). Idaho Country Free Press, c1968.
  • Raphael, Ray. A People's History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. New York: The New Press, 2001. ISBN 0-06-000440-1.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars. New York: Viking, 2001. ISBN 0-670-91025-2.
  • Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00638-0.
  • Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X.
  • Utley, Robert M. and Wilcomb E. Washburn. Indian Wars (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Yenne, Bill. Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West. Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-016-3.
  • Michno, F. Gregory (2009). Encyclopedia of Indian wars: Western battles and skirmishes 1850–1890. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9. 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Barnes, Jeff. Forts of the Northern Plains: Guide to Historic Military Posts of the Plains Indian Wars. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008. ISBN 0-8117-3496-X.
  • Glassley, Ray Hoard. Indian Wars of the Pacific Northwest, Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon 1972 ISBN 0-8323-0014-4
  • Heard, J. Norman. Handbook of the American Frontier (5 vol Scarecrow Press, 1987–98); Covers "1: The Southeastern Woodlands," "2: The Northeastern Woodlands," "3: The Great Plains", "4: The Far West" and vol 5: "Chronology, Bibliography, Index." Compilation of Indian-white contacts & conflicts
  • Kessel, William and Robert Wooster. Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare (2005)
  • McDermott, John D. A Guide to the Indian Wars of the West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8032-8246-X.
  • Michno, Gregory F. Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864–1868, 360 pages, Caxton Press, 2007, ISBN 0-87004-460-5.
  • Stannard, David. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World Oxford, 1992
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607-1890: A Political, Social, and Military History (3 vol 2012)
  • Wooster, Robert. The Military and United States Indian Policy, 1865-1903 (1995)

HistoriografiSunting

  • Merrell, James H (1989). "Some Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William and Mary Quarterly. 46 (1): 94–119. doi:10.2307/1922410. JSTOR 1922410. 
  • Merrell, James H (2012). "Second Thoughts on Colonial Historians and American Indians". William and Mary Quarterly. 69 (3): 451–512. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0451. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0451. 
  • Miller, Lester L., Jr. Indian Wars: A Bibliography (U.S. Army, 1988) online; lists over 200 books and articles.
  • Smith, Sherry L (1998). "Lost soldiers: Re-searching the Army in the American West". Western Historical Quarterly. 29 (2): 149–63. doi:10.2307/971327. JSTOR 971327. 

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