Otto IV, Kaisar Romawi Suci

Otto IV (1175 – 19 Mei 1218) adalah salah satu dari dua pesaing raja Jerman dari 1198, raja tunggal dari 1208, dan Kaisar Romawi Suci dari 1209 sampai ia terpaksa abdikasi pada 1215. Sebagai satu-satunya raja tunggal dari dinasti Welf dynasty, ia memurkai Paus Innosensius III dan diekskomunikasi pada 1210.

Otto IV
Ottta4Brunsvicky.jpg
Segel Otto IV
Kaisar Romawi Suci
Berkuasa1209–1215
Penobatan21 Oktober 1209, Roma
PendahuluHenry VI
PenerusFrederick II
Raja Romawi
Berkuasa1198–1209
Penobatan12 Juli 1198, Aachen
PendahuluHenry VI
PenerusFrederick II
Raja Italia
Berkuasa1208–1212
PendahuluHenry VI
PenerusHenry VII[1]
Raja Burgundi
Berkuasa1208–1215
PendahuluFilipus dari Swabia
PenerusFrederick II
Lahir1175
mungkin Braunschweig
Wafat19 Mei 1218 (usia 43)
Harzburg
Pemakaman
WangsaWangsa Welf
AyahHenry si Singa
IbuMatilda dari Inggris
PasanganBeatrice dari Hohenstaufen
Marie of Brabant
AgamaKatolik Roma
Lambang Wangsa Welf-Brunswick (Braunschweig)
Lambang Otto IV, Kaisar Romawi Suci
Lambang Otto IV, Kaisar Romawi Suci (Chronica Majora)

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ Although Frederick II was crowned King of the Romans, King of Sicily, King of Jerusalem and Holy Roman Emperor, he was never crowned King of Italy at Pavia, Monza or Milan during his lifetime – see Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages, (1906), pg. 143; 147 and Kington-Oliphant's, History of Frederick the Second, Emperor of the Romans, Vol I, (1862), pg. 195 which specifically state that the Milanese refused to crown Frederick with the Iron Crown. Neither is his coronation as King of Italy mentioned in any modern source, such as Abulafia's, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V: c. 1198 – c. 1300, (1999)

ReferensiSunting

  • Abulafia, David, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V: c. 1198 – c. 1300, Cambridge University Press, 1999
  • Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire, 1913
  • Comyn, Robert. History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, Vol. I. 1851
  • Dunham, S. A., A History of the Germanic Empire, Vol. I, 1835
  • Huffman, Joseph Patrick (2000). "Richard the Lionheart and Otto IV: Itinerant Kingship and the City of Cologne". The Social Politics of Medieval Diplomacy: Anglo-German Relations (1066–1307). University of Michigan Press. hlm. 133–77. 
  • Keefe, Thomas K. (1983). Feudal Assessments and the Political Community Under Henry II and His Sons . University of California Press. 
  • McLynn, Frank (2007). Lionheart and Lackland: King Richard, King John and the Wars of Conquest. Vintage. 
  • Norgate, Kate (1887). England Under the Angevin Kings. Macmillan. 

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