Oliver Otis Howard (lahir 8 November 1830 – meninggal 26 Oktober 1909 pada umur 78 tahun) adalah seorang perwira Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat dan jenderal Union dalam Perang Saudara Amerika. Sebagai komandan brigade dalam Tentara Potomac, Howard kehilangan lengan kanannya saat memimpin pasukannya melawan pasukan Konfederasi dalam Pertempuran Fair Oaks/Seven Pines pada Juni 1862, sebuah pengabdian yang membuatnya meraih Medal of Honor.

Oliver Otis Howard
Oliver Otis Howard.jpg
Potret Oliver O. Howard oleh Mathew Brady, pada Perang Saudara
JulukanThe Christian General
Lahir(1830-11-08)8 November 1830
Leeds, Maine, AS
Meninggal26 Oktober 1909(1909-10-26) (umur 78)
Burlington, Vermont, AS
Tempat pemakamanLakeview Cemetery, Burlington, Vermont
PengabdianAmerika Serikat (Union)
Dinas/cabangAngkatan Darat Amerika Serikat
Union Army
Lama dinas1854–1894
PangkatUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Mayor Jenderal
KomandoXI Corps
IV Corps
Army of the Tennessee
Freedmen's Bureau
United States Military Academy
Perang/pertempuranPerang Saudara Amerika Peperangan Indian
PenghargaanThanks of Congress
Medal of Honor
Pekerjaan lainPresiden Universitas Howard Managing Director, Lincoln Memorial University
Tanda tanganAppletons' Howard Oliver Otis signature.png

CatatanSunting

ReferensiSunting

  • Carpenter, John A. "General O. O. Howard at Gettysburg." Civil War History. September 1963.
  • Carpenter, John A. "Sword and Olive Branch: Oliver Otis Howard." Bronx, NY, Fordham Univ. Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0823219889.
  • Cimbala, Paul A. "Oliver Otis Howard." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Cox, John, and LaWanda Cox. "General O. O. Howard and the 'Misrepresented Bureau'." Journal of Southern History 19, no. 3 (November 1953): 427-56.
  • Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • McFeely, William S. Yankee Stepfather: General O.O. Howard and the Freedmen. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968. ISBN 978-0-300-00315-4.
  • Sweeney, Edward R. Making Peace with Cochise: the 1872 Journal of Captain Joseph Alton Sladen. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8061-2973-5.
  • Tagg, Larry. The Generals of Gettysburg, Campbell, CA: Savas Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
  • Thomson, David. "Oliver Otis Howard: Reassessing the Legacy of the 'Christian General'." American Nineteenth Century History, 10 (September 2009), 273–98.
  • Utley, Robert M. "Oliver Otis Howard." New Mexico Historical Review 62, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 55-63.
  • Weil, Gordon L. "The Good Man: The Civil War's "Christian General" and His Fight for Racial Equality". Harpswell, ME: Arthur McAllister Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-1-935496-06-9.

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