Lorong tikus

Ratlines adalah sebuah sistem rute pelarian orang-orang Nazi dan para fasis lainnya yang melarikan diri dari Eropa pada akhir Perang Dunia II. Rute pelarian tersebut utamanya berujung ke Amerika Latin, terutama Argentina, Paraguay, Kolombia,[1] Brasil, Uruguay, Meksiko, Guatemala, Chili, Ekuador dan Bolivia, serta Swiss. Tujuan lainnya meliputi Australia, Kanada, dan Timur Tengah. Terdapat dua rute utama: pertama dari Jerman ke Spanyol, kemudian Argentina; kedua dari Jerman ke Roma ke Genoa, kemudian Amerika Selatan. Dua rute tersebut berkembang secara independen namun kemudian datang bersamaan untuk kolaborasi.[2]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ "Colombia Nazi". Semana. Diakses tanggal 14 November 2016. 
  2. ^ Phayer, 2008, p. 173.

SumberSunting

  • Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. (1991). Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and the Swiss Bankers. New York: St. Martin's Press, (1991; revised 1998).
  • Goñi, Uki. (2003; revised). The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina. London: Granta.
  • Graham, Robert, and David Alvarez. (1998). Nothing Sacred: Nazi Espionage against the Vatican, 1939-1945. London: Frank Cass.
  • Phayer, Michael (2000). The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 
  • Phayer, Michael (2008). Pius XII, the Holocaust, and the Cold War. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 
  • Sereny, Gitta. (1977). Into That Darkness. London: Picador.
  • Steinacher, Gerald. (2006). The Cape of Last Hope: The Flight of Nazi War Criminals through Italy to South America, in Eisterer, Klaus and Günter Bischof (eds; 2006) Transatlantic Relations: Austria and Latin America in the 19th and 20th Century (Transatlantica 1), pp. 203–24. New Brunswick: Transatlantica.
  • Wiesenthal, Simon. (1989). Justice not Vengeance. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Loftus, John. (2010). America's Nazi Secret: An Insider's History . Waterwille: (Trine Day); ISBN 978-1936296040.
  • Simpson, Christopher (1988). Blowback: The First Full Account of America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Disastrous Effect on The cold war, Our Domestic and Foreign Policy. New York: (Grove/Atlantic); ISBN 978-0020449959.
  • Breitman, Richard, Norman J.W. Goda, Timothy Naftali, and Robert Wolfe (2005). U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge University Press; ISBN 9780521617949.
  • Steinacher, Gerald. (2012; P/B edition). "Nazis on the Run: How Hitler's Henchmen Fled Justice". Oxford University Press; ISBN 978-0199642458.