Dalam hubungan internasional, penguasa menengah adalah negara berdaulat yang tidak tergolong penguasa super atau penguasa besar, tetapi memiliki pengaruh yang besar atau cukup dan mendapat pengakuan internasional. Konsep "penguasa menengah" dapat ditelusuri hingga asal mula sistem negara Eropa. Pada akhir abad ke-16, pemikir politik Italia Giovanni Botero membagi dunia ke dalam tiga jenis negara – grandissime (imperium), mezano (penguasa menengah), dan piccioli (penguasa kecil). Menurut Botero, mezano atau penguasa menengah "...memiliki kekuatan dan kewenangan yang cukup untuk berdiri sendiri tanpa bantuan negara lain."[1]

Para pemimpin negara G-20 dan lainnya hadir di KTT G-20 Washington 2008. Sebagian besar G-20 adalah penguasa menengah, sisanya penguasa besar.

Tumpang tindihSunting

Tumpang tindih antara penguasa menengah dan penguasa besar menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada kesepakatan soal pengelompokkan ini.[2]

Negara-negara seperti Tiongkok, Perancis, Rusia, Britania Raya, dan Amerika Serikat umumnya dianggap penguasa besar karena memiliki pengaruh ekonomi, militer, dan straegi, memegang status pemilik senjata nuklir resmi, dan menduduki jabatan permanen di Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa.

Namun demikian, ada sumber-sumber yang menggolongkan Perancis, Rusia, dan Britania Raya sebagai penguasa menengah:Templat:Context-inline

Sejumlah akademisi juga meyakini bahwa Jerman dan Jepang adalah penguasa besar karena ekonominya maju dan memiliki pengaruh global, walaupun kemampuan militer dan strategisnya terbatas.[7] Meski jarang ada akademisi yang mengakui India sebagai penguasa besar, sejumlah ilmuwan politik seperti Malik Mohan dan Zbigniew Brzezinski menganggap India sebagai penguasa besar.[8][9] Jerman, Jepang, dan India juga sering dikelompokkan sebagai penguasa menengah:

Sejumlah ilmuwan hubungan internasional mendukung klaim bahwa Italia dan Kanada berhak mendapatkan status penguasa besar karena terlibat dalam G7.[18][19] Dalam laporan HCSS tahun 2014, Italia terdaftar sebagai penguasa besar.[20]

Daftar penguasa menengahSunting

Layaknya penguasa besar, tidak ada kesepakatan mengenai pengelompokan penguasa menengah. Daftar manapun selalu diperdebatkan dan menjajarkan negara berukuran besar (e.g. Brasil) dengan negara berukuran kecil (e.g. Norwegia).[28] Tidak semua penguasa menengah memiliki status yang sama; beberapa di antaranya dianggap sebagai penguasa regional dan anggota G20 (e.g. Australia), sedangkan negara lainnya dapat dengan mudah digolongkan sebagai penguasa kecil (e.g. Uni Emirat Arab). Sejumlah penguasa menengah yang lebih besar juga memainkan peran penting di Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa dan organisasi internasinoal lain seperti WTO.

Berikut adalah daftar negara yang pernah dianggap sebagai penguasa menengah oleh sejumlah akademisi atau ilmuwan politik:

Lihat pulaSunting


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