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Joseph Conrad (nama lahir Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 Desember 1857 – 3 Agustus 1924) adalah seorang penulis Polandia-Britania yang diangkat sebagai salah satu novelis terbesar yang menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.[1] Ia diberi kewarganegaraan Britania pada 1886 namun selalu menyatakan dirinya sendiri sebagai orang Polandia.[2]

Joseph Conrad
Conrad pada 1904
Conrad pada 1904
LahirJózef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski
(1857-12-03)3 Desember 1857
Terekhove dekat Berdychiv, Kegubernuran Kiev, Kekaisaran Rusia
Meninggal3 Agustus 1924(1924-08-03) (umur 66)
Bishopsbourne, Inggris
MakamCanterbury Cemetery, Canterbury
PekerjaanNovelis, penulis cerita pendek
BahasaInggris
KebangsaanPolandia
KewarganegaraanBritania
Periode menulis1895–1923: Modernisme
Aliran sastraFiksi
Karya terkenalThe Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897)
Heart of Darkness (1899)
Lord Jim (1900)
Typhoon (1902)
Nostromo (1904)
The Secret Agent (1907)
Under Western Eyes (1911)
PasanganJessie George
AnakBorys, John

Tanda tangan

Joseph Conrad dianggap sebagai seorang modernis awal, meskipun karya-karyanya mesih berisi unsur-unsur realisme abad kesembilan belas.[3] Gaya naratifnya dan karakter anti-heroiknya[4] menginspirasi beberapa pengarang, termasuk T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner,[5] Graham Greene, dan yang paling terkini Salman Rushdie. Beberapa film diadaptasi dari, atau terinspirasi oleh, karya-karya Conrad.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ "Joseph Conrad". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  2. ^ Najder, Z. (2007). Joseph Conrad: A Life. Camden House. hlm. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-57113-347-2. 
  3. ^ J. H. Stape, The New Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 103–4.[1]
  4. ^ See J. H. Stape, The New Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad, p. 70, re Lord Jim, for example. [2]
  5. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama John Stape p. 271

Sumber sekunder (daftar pustaka)Sunting

  • Gérard Jean-Aubry, Vie de Conrad (Life of Conrad – the authorised biography), Gallimard, 1947, translated by Helen Sebba as The Sea Dreamer: A Definitive Biography of Joseph Conrad, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1957.Magill, Frank; Kohler, Dayton (1968). Masterplots. 11. Salem Press. hlm. 236. 
  • Richard Curle, Joseph Conrad: A Study, New York, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1914.
  • Peter Edgerly Firchow, Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness, University Press of Kentucky, 2000.
  • Leo Gurko, Joseph Conrad: Giant in Exile, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1962.
  • Robert Hampson, Cross-Cultural Encounters in Joseph Conrad's Malay Fiction, Palgrave, 2000.
  • Alex Kurczaba, ed., Conrad and Poland, Boulder, East European Monographs, 1996, ISBN 0-88033-355-3.
  • C. McCarthy, The Cambridge Introduction to Edward Said, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: A Biography, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991, ISBN 0-684-19230-6.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Conrad under Familial Eyes, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25082-X.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: A Life, translated by Halina Najder, Rochester, New York, Camden House, 2007, ISBN 1-57113-347-X.
  • Zdzisław Najder, "Korzeniowski, Józef Teodor Konrad", Polski Słownik Biograficzny, tom (vol.) XIV (Kopernicki, Izydor – Kozłowska, Maria), Wrocław, Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1968–1969, pp. 173–176.
  • Mario Pei, The Story of Language, with an Introduction by Stuart Berg Flexner, revised ed., New York, New American Library, 1984, ISBN 0-452-25527-9.
  • Joseph Retinger, Conrad and His Contemporaries, London, Minerva, 1941; New York, Roy, 1942.
  • Edward Said, Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1966.
  • T. Scovel, A Time to Speak: a Psycholinguistic Inquiry into the Critical Period for Human Speech, Cambridge, MA, Newbury House, 1988.
  • J. H. Stape, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • John Stape, The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad, New York, Pantheon, 2007, ISBN 1-4000-4449-9.
  • J. I. M. Stewart, Joseph Conrad, New York, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1968.
  • Ian Watt (2000) Essays on Conrad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78387-9, ISBN 978-0-521-78387-3
  • Olivier Weber, Conrad, Arthaud-Flammarion, 2011.
  • Wise, T.J. (1920) A Bibliography of the Writings of Joseph Conrad (1895–1920). London: Printed for Private Circulation Only By Richard Clay & Sons, Ltd.
  • Morton Dauwen Zabel, "Conrad, Joseph," Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., ISBN 0-7172-0117-1, vol. 7, pp. 606–7.
  • H.S. Zins, "Joseph Conrad and British Critics of Colonialism", Pula, vol. 12, nos. 1 & 2, 1998.
  • Henryk Zins, Joseph Conrad and Africa, Kenya Literature Bureau, 1982, ISBN 0-907108-23-7.

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