Kantor "Jews for Jesus" di kota New York.

Jews for Jesus (terjemahan: "Orang Yahudi untuk Yesus") adalah sebuah organisasi Kristen evangelikal konservatif yang berfokus untuk membawa orang Yahudi untuk masuk Kristen.[1][2][3] Jews for Jesus mendefinisikan orang Yahudi dalam hubungan orang tua dan sejak lahir, tanpa membedakan agama[4] dan para anggotanya menganggap diri sebagai orang Yahudi – baik sesuai definisi hukum Yahudi (Halakha), atau menurut pandangan "Jews for Jesus".

Identifikasi "Jews for Jesus" sebagai organisasi Yahudi ditentang oleh denominasi-denominasi agamawi Yahudi[5][6] dan kelompok sekuler Yahudi[7][8] karena keyakinan Kristen para anggotanya. Aktivitas penginjilan kelompok ini mendapat tanggapan beragam dari perorangan maupun organisasi Kristen yang lain, umumnya terbagi antara golongan liberal dan konservatif.[1][9]

Didirikan pada tahun 1973, Jews for Jesus memperkejakan lebih dari 200 orang,[10] dengan perkiraan jumlah penganut sebanyak 30.000 sampai 125.000 di seluruh duniaw[11] dan menerima sekitar 20 juta dollar sumbangan setahun.[12]

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Organisasi ini didirikan oleh Moishe Rosen, seorang pendeta Gereja Baptis yang lahir dari keluarga Yahudi dan masuk Kristen paeda usia 17 tahun,[13] dan Jhan Moskowitz, seorang pendeta Christian and Missionary Alliance minister serta putra seorang yang selama dari Holocaust.[14] Rosen pernah menjadi kepala cabang San Francisco dari American Board of Missions to the Jews (sebuah organisasi yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Chosen People Ministries). Pada tahun 1973, Rosen memisahkan diri dari organisasi tersebut,[15] dan pada bulan September tahun itu, mendirikan Jews for Jesus sebagai Hineni Ministries dengan kantor pusat di daerah San Francisco. Dalam beberapa tahun setelahnya, organisasi ini membuka cabang-cabang di kota-kota lain. Dari bulan September 1979 - June 1980, menutup cabang-cabangnya untuk melatih para misionaris.[16] Kemudian kembali membuka lebih banyak cabang-cabang, kebanyakan di kota-kota di Amerika Serikat, pada tahun 1980-an, serta di luar Amerika pada tahun 1990-an. Rosen tetap menjabat sebagai executive director sampai bulan Mei 1996 ketika ia digantikan oleh David Brickner,[1] juga seorang pendeta gereja Baptis.[17] Moishe Rosen meninggal pada bulan Mei 2010. Organisasi ini mempertahankan kantor pusatnya di dalam maupun di dekat kota San Francisco, California sejak berdirinya.[18]

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ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b c "Pernyataan doktrinal mereka secara mendasar tidak dapat dibedakan dari kelompok Evangelikal dan Kristen konservatif lainnya." Kesalahan pengutipan: Tanda <ref> tidak sah; nama "RELTOL" didefinisikan berulang dengan isi berbeda
  2. ^
    • "Selama waktu saya bersama misi ini, aku mendapati 'Jews for Jesus' sebagai sebuah pelayanan Kristen (atau dapat juga disebut, Mesianik) dengan semangat untuk memberitakan kabar baik mengenai Yesus dan dedikasi yang segenap hati untuk menyampaikan pesan Mesias dengan cara-cara yang penuh kasih, terus terang dan kreatif sebaik mungkin." Pastor Lev Leigh. Hope Baptist Church. Richmond, CA (Letters From JFJ Alumni)
    • "... Jews for Jesus dan kelompok-kelompok Kristen lainnya yang berpegang pada keunikan Kristus." (Jews for Jesus Leader Contradicts American Catholic Bishops. Jews for Jesus, Press Release. 19 Agustus 2002)
    • "Clothed in colorful shirts with large writing identifying their Christian group, Jews for Jesus has been keeping up with the 24-hour-running city, handing out tens of thousands of literature and promoting their evangelistic campaign – Behold Your God – through media outlets." (Christian Post. [1])
  3. ^ Is "Jews for Jesus" Jewish or Christian?
  4. ^ "Kami percaya bahwa Keyahudian (Jewishness) adalah hak lahir, yang diwariskan dari orang tua kami. Umat kami bukan dari satu budaya; kami mempunyai ekspresi budaya yang beragam (Ashkenazi/Sephardi, Georgia/Rusia, Etiopia, Persia, dst.). Umat kami bukan dari satu agama. Yudaisme bisa jadi merupakan agama tradisional banyak orang Yahudi, tetapi orang Yahudi masih dianggap Yahudi meskipun menganut ateisme atau agama lain. Those who say that Jews who believe in Jesus are errant Jews or misguided Jews are entitled to their opinions. But they are not entitled to negate our Jewishness. We are Jews by birth and that cannot change."Jews for Jesus Q&A: Can you explain how one can be a Jew and a Christian at the same time? That seems like a contradiction in terms
  5. ^ "Secara virtual terdapat kemufakatan bulat pada seluruh denominasi (Yudaisme) bahwa Jews for Jesus bukanlah bersifat Yahudi." (Kaplan, Dana Evan. The Cambridge Companion to American Judaism, Cambridge University Press, August 15, 2005, pp. 139–140).
  6. ^ "For most American Jews, it is acceptable to blend some degree of foreign spiritual elements with Judaism. The one exception is Christianity, which is perceived to be incompatible with any form of Jewishness. Jews for Jesus and other Messianic Jewish groups are thus seen as antithetical to Judaism and are completely rejected by the majority of Jews". (Kaplan, Dana Evan. The Cambridge Companion to American Judaism, Cambridge University Press, August 15, 2005, p. 9).
  7. ^
    • "To make the record clear, Jews for Jesus is a Christian missionary organization – period." Jews for Jesus: Jewish or Christian? You Decide, Jews for Judaism website, retrieved September 11, 2006.
    • "Messianic Jewish organizations, such as Jews for Jesus, often refer to their faith as fulfilled Judaism, in that they believe Jesus fulfilled the Messianic prophecies. Although Messianic Judaism claims to be Jewish, and many adherents observe Jewish holidays, most Jews regard Messianic Judaism as deceptive at best, fraudulent at worst. They charge that Messianic Judaism is actually Christianity presenting itself as Judaism." (Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism, Baylor University Press, November 2004, p. 448).
    • "I do not seek, of course, covertly (as sometimes Jews for Jesus do) or overtly, to convert myself, or any other Jew to Christianity..." (Boyarin, Daniel. Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity, University of Pennsylvania Press, July 2004, p. xii).
    • "Certain Christian missionary groups have now set up a front organization called "Jews for Jesus," through which they entice naive Jews to Christianity..." (Stolper, Pinchas. "Was Jesus The Messiah? Let's Examine The Facts", in Kaplan, Aryeh. Aryeh Kaplan Anthology: Volume 1, Mesorah Publications, August 1991, p. 293).
    • "Even as I write, I fear that Christian missionaries or, even more insidiously, Jews for Jesus—people who (unlike the redeeming avant-garde of Christianity) believe that Judaism is superseded, and Jewish have no right to exist as Jews any more—will misuse my words. These people, who believe that Christianity has taken over Judaism like some succubus that must now govern the behavior of its host body, seek to abolish the Jewish religion." (Greenberg, Irving. For the Sake of Heaven and Earth: The New Encounter Between Judaism and Christianity, The Jewish Publication Society, October 2004, p. 97).
    • "It should now be clear to you why Jews have such a problem with 'Jews for Jesus' or other presentations of Messianic Judaism. I have no difficulty with Christianity. I even accept those Christians who would want me to convert to Christianity so long as they don't use coercion or duplicity and are willing to listen in good faith to my reasons for being Jewish. I do have a major problem with those Christians who would try to mislead me and other Jews into believing that one can be both Jewish and Christian." (Lotker, Michael. A Christian's Guide to Judaism, Paulist Press, March 2004, p. 35).
    • "Evangelical Christians are engaged in aggressive and extensive missionary activity among Jews. Among other results, this has given rise to groups of 'messianic Jews', of which 'Jews for Jesus' is the most outstanding example. These are actually Jews who have adopted the evangelical Protestant faith and its precepts." (Wistrich, Robert, Terms of Survival, Routledge (UK), March 1995, p. 343).
    • "Messianic Judaism is a Christian movement that began in the 1970s combining a mixture of Jewish ritual and Christianity. There are a vast and growing numbers of these groups, and they differ in how much Jewish ritual is mixed with conventional Christian belief. One end of the spectrum is represented by Jews For Jesus, who simply target Jews for conversion to Christianity using imitations of Jewish ritual solely as a ruse for attracting the potential Jewish converts. On the other end are those who don't stress the divinity of Jesus, but present him as the 'Messiah.'" "Messiah Truth. Messianic Judaism: A Christian Missionary Movement". 
  8. ^ Meeting the Challenge: Hebrew Christians and the Jewish Community
  9. ^ Others who oppose the evangelism related activities of Jews for Jesus:
    • Benjamin Hubbard; John Hatfield, James Santucci (1997). America's Religions. An Educator's Guide to Beliefs and Practices. Teacher Ideas Press, a Division of Libraries Unlimited, p.100. ISBN 1-56308-469-4.
    • Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism, Baylor University Press, November 2004, p. 448
    • "Today, many evangelical Christian-Protestant groups are spending between 100,000,000 and 150,000,000 dollars a year to transform Jews into Christians. The best known of these organization is Jews for Jesus...". (Berkley, E. George. Jews, Branden Books, February 1997, p. 129).
    • "Thirdly, there is Jews for Jesus or, more generally, Messianic Judaism. This is a movement of people often of Jewish background who have come to believe Jesus is the expected Jewish messiah... They often have congregations independent of other churches and specifically target Jews for conversion to their form of Christianity." (Harries, Richard. After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust, Oxford University Press, August 2003, p. 119.)
    • "...Jews for Jesus (Jews converted to 'born again' Christianity who are seeking to make more such converts...". (Marty, Martin E. When Faiths Collide, Blackwell Publishing, January 2005, p. 35).
    • "Jews for Jesus, the leading organization dedicated to converting Jews to Christianity, has long been a concern because of its aggressive proselytizing with a deceptive message: that Jews who accept Jesus as the son of God and their savior remain Jewish." Jews for Jesus: Targeting Jews for Conversion with Subterfuge and Deception, Anti-Defamation League, August 27, 2004, retrieved September 11, 2006.
    • "Jews for Jesus is a sect of a very different nature. This group... has a sole motivational goal of converting Jews to Christianity." Fogel, Keith and Marian E. Conversos of the Americas, Xlibris Corporation, April 2004, p. 169).
    • "Jews for Jesus is an evangelical Christian organization ..." Who are the Jews for Jesus? (exjewsforjesus.org)
    • "... its doctrine is strictly Christian in the fundamentalist/evangelical understanding of Christian faith" Is Jews for Jesus a Christian organization, or is it a Jewish organization? (exjewsforjesus.org)
  10. ^ ministrywatch.com
  11. ^ "About Jews for Jesus: How Many Jews for Jesus Are There?"
  12. ^ Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability
  13. ^ The Real Jews for Jesus. The Leaders by Jason Levinson (Torah Atlanta)
  14. ^ Jews for Jesus: Targeting Jews for Conversion with Subterfuge and Deception. Methods (Anti-Defamation League)
  15. ^ Randall Herbert Balmer (2002). Encyclopedia of evangelicalism. Westminster John Knox Press. hlm. 127–. ISBN 978-0-664-22409-7. Diakses tanggal 21 August 2011. Chosen People Ministries Shortly after Leopold Cohn arrived in New York City from Hungary in 1892, he forsook his Jewish heritage and converted to Christianity. He founded the Williamsburg Mission in 1894 and started a newsletter, Chosen People, in an attempt to apprise Christians of evangelistic initiatives among the Jews. In 1924, Cohn gave the Williamsburg Mission a new name, the American Board of Missions to the Jews; the administration of the organization devolved in 1937 to Joseph H. Cohn, a graduate of Moody Bible Institute, after the death of his father, the mission's founder. The San Francisco arm of the American Board of Missions to the Jews, headed by Moishe Rosen, broke off from the national organization in 1973 to form Jews for Jesus. The original mission changed its name yet again in 1986, to Chosen People Ministries. The organization, now based in Charlotte, North Carolina, produces a daily radio program, Through Jewish Eyes, occasional television specials, and various evangelistic materials. 
  16. ^ Jews for Jesus Timeline
  17. ^ http://brickner.jewsforjesus.org/about.htm
  18. ^ "Jews for Jesus Timeline". Diakses tanggal 21 August 2011. 

Pustaka tambahanSunting

  • Called to Controversy: The Unlikely Story of Moishe Rosen and the Founding of Jews for Jesus by Ruth Rosen (Thomas Nelson, 2012) ISBN 978-1-59555-491-8
  • Not ashamed: The story of Jews for Jesus by Ruth Tucker (Multnomah Publishers, 2000) ISBN 978-1-57673-700-2
  • Sentenced for Life: A Story of an Entry and an Exit into the World of Fundamentalist Christianity and Jews for Jesus by Jo Ann Schneider Farris (Writers Club Press, 2002) ISBN 0-595-24940-X
  • Messianic Judaism: A rabbi's journey through religious change in America by Carol Harris-Shapiro (Beacon Press, 1999) ISBN 978-0-8070-1040-2
  • Evangelizing the Chosen People: Missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000 by Yaakov Ariel (The University of North Carolina Press, 1999) ISBN 0-8078-2566-2
  • Hawking God. A Young Jewish Woman's Ordeal in Jews for Jesus by Ellen Kamentsky (Sapphire Press, 1993) An excerpt
  • Jews for Jesus: An Anthropological Study by Juliene G. Lipson (AMS Press, 1990) ISBN 0-404-62605-X
  • Smashing the Idols: A Jewish Inquiry into the Cult Phenomenon by Gary D. Eisenberg (Jason Aronson, 1988) ISBN 0-87668-974-8

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