Orang Jerman Amerika

Orang Amerika kelahiran atau keturunan Jerman
(Dialihkan dari Jerman-Amerika)

Kelompok etnis Jerman Amerika (Jerman: Deutschamerikaner) terdiri dari orang-orang yang memiliki darah Jerman secara menyeluruh atau sebagian. Kelompok etnis tersebut merupakan kelompok etnis terbesar di Amerika Serikat, yang terdiri dari sekitar 50 juta orang.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Kelompok tersebut terdiri dari sekitar dari diaspora Jerman di dunia.[11][12][13]

Jerman Amerika
Orang Amerika keturunan Jerman menurut survei dari Sensus AS pada 2019
Daerah dengan populasi signifikan
Amerika Serikat Di seluruh wilayah Amerika Serikat, kecuali untuk New England
Pluralitas di Pennsylvania[1] dan Negara-negara bagian tengah barat[2]
Inggris (Dialek Inggris Amerika) dan Jerman
Kelompok etnik terkait

Tidak ada negara-negara Jerman yang memiliki koloni Amerika. Pada 1670an, kelompok-kelompok imigran Jerman signifikan pertama datang ke koloni-koloni Britania, utamanya bermukim di New York dan Pennsylvania. Imigrasi berlanjut dalam jumlah yang sangat besar pada abad ke-19, dengan delapan juga orang datang dari Jepang. Pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas (antara 1820 sampai 1870) lebih dari tujuh setengah juta imigran datang ke Amerika Serikat — lebih dari dua kali lipatnya populasi di negara asalnya. Pada 2010, populasi mereka bertumbuh menjadi 49.8 juta warga negara, menandakan penambahan 6 juta orang sejak 2000.

Jerman Amerika mendirikan taman kanak-kanak pertama di Amerika Serikat,[14] memperkenalkan tradisi pohon Natal,[15][16] dan mempelopori makanan-makanan Amerika populer seperti hot dog dan hamburger.[17]

Referensi sunting

  1. ^ "The Germans in America". 2014-04-24. Diakses tanggal 2015-06-12. 
  2. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 2012-11-11. 
  3. ^ One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society, p. 120.
  4. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Census 2008 ACS Ancestry estimates
  5. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  6. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  7. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  8. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  9. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  10. ^ From Census Bureau, "S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States" 2006-2008 data Diarsipkan 2020-02-13 di Archive.is
  11. ^ Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background Diarsipkan 2009-05-04 di Wayback Machine.. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
  12. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), page 171.
  13. ^ "Report on German population". Histclo.com. 4 February 2010. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-07. 
  14. ^ "404 Error: File Not Found". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2011-06-11. Diakses tanggal 17 Maret 2015. 
  15. ^ "The History of Christmas", Gareth Marples, diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2006-06-28, diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2006 
  16. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs. "Professor Brought Christmas Tree to New England". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 1999-08-23. Diakses tanggal 17 Maret 2015. 
  17. ^ Lihat catatan surat kabar Diarsipkan 2009-08-05 di Wayback Machine.

Daftar pustaka sunting

  • "German-Americans: The silent minority," The Economist Feb. 7, 2015, With a statistical map by counties
  • Adams, Willi Paul. The German-Americans: An Ethnic Experience Diarsipkan 2010-06-28 di Wayback Machine. (1993).
  • Bank, Michaela. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women's Rights and Nativism, 1848–1890 (Berghahn, 2012).
  • Baron, Frank, "Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 4 (Supplemental Issue 2012), 1–254.
  • Barry, Colman J. The Catholic Church and German Americans. (1953).
  • Brancaforte, Charlotte L., ed. The German Forty-Eighters in the United States. (1989).
  • Coburn, Carol K. Life at Four Corners: Religion, Gender, and Education in a German-Lutheran Community, 1868–1945. (1992).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Germans" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. (1980). pp. 405–425.
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Germans in Minnesota. (2003).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Immigrant Milwaukee, 1836–1860: Accommodation and Community in a Frontier City. (1976).
  • DeWitt, Petra. Degrees of Allegiance: Harassment and Loyalty in Missouri's German-American Community during World War I (Ohio University Press, 2012).
  • Dobbert, Guido A. "German-Americans between New and Old Fatherland, 1870–1914". American Quarterly 19 (1967): 663–680.
  • Efford, Alison Clark. German Immigrants: Race and Citizenship in the Civil War Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. "German Minorities in World War I: A Comparative Study of Britain and the USA", Ethnic and Racial Studies 17 (April 1994): 238–259.
  • Emmerich, Alexander. John Jacob Astor and the First Great American Fortune. (2013); Astor (1763-1848) came to the US in 1783
  • Ernst, Robert. Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825-1863 (1949), detailed coverage of Germans and Irish.
  • Faust, Albert Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States with Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. 2 vol (1909). vol. 1, vol. 2
  • Fogleman, Aaron. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996) online
  • German Historical Institute. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present. (2010, updated continually)
  • Gross, Stephen John. "Handing down the farm: Values, strategies, and outcomes in inheritance practices among rural German Americans", Journal of Family History, (1996) 21: 2, 192–217.
  • Grubb, Farley. German Immigration and Servitude in America, 1709–1920 (Routledge Explorations in Economic History) (2011).
  • Hawgood, John. The Tragedy of German-America. (1940).
  • Iverson, Noel. Germania, U.S.A.: Social Change in New Ulm, Minnesota. (1966). emphasizes Turners.
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest, Social and Political Conflict 1888–1896. (1971). Voting behavior of Germans, prohibition, language, and school issues.
  • Johnson, Hildegard B. "The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 41 (1951): 1–41.
  • Jordon, Terry G. German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-century Texas. (1966).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. German-American Immigration and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Madison, Wisconsin: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2004).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Uprooted or Transplanted? Reflections on Patterns of German Immigration to Missouri," Missouri Historical Review, 103 (Jan. 2009), 71-89.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Immigrant Epistolary and Epistemology: On the Motivators and Mentality of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Journal of American Ethnic History (2009): 34-54. in JSTOR, on deep-reading their letters
  • Kazal, Russell A. Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. (2004).
  • Keller, Christian B. "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers," Journal of Military History, 73 (January 2009), 117–145.
  • Knarr, Mary L. "Faith, frauen, and the formation of an ethnic identity: German Lutheran women in south and central Texas, 1831–1890". Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Christian University, 2009.
  • Lohne, Raymond. "Team of Friends: A New Lincoln Theory and Legacy", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Fall/Winter 2008, vol. 101 no. 3/4, pp. 285–314. German American politics and Abraham Lincoln
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty: German Americans During World War I. (1974).
  • Luebke, Frederick C., ed. Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln. (1971).
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Germans in the New World. University of Illinois Press (1990).
  • Luebke, Frederick. Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900. (1969).
  • O'Connor, Richard. German-Americans: an Informal History. (1968).
  • Pickle, Linda. Contented among Strangers: Rural German-Speaking Women and Their Families in the Nineteenth-Century Midwest (1996).
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600–1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences. (1957).
  • Ritter, Luke, "Sunday Regulation and the Formation of German American Identity in St. Louis, 1840–1860," Missouri Historical Review, (2012), vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 23–40.
  • Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. (1998).
  • Salamon, Sonya. Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming, and Community in the Midwest (U of North Carolina Press, 1992), focus on German Americans.
  • Schiffman, Harold. "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority" (1987).
  • Schirp, Francis. "Germans in the United States". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Appleton, 1909.
  • Schlossman, Steven L. "Is there an American tradition of bilingual education? German in the public elementary schools, 1840-1919." American Journal of Education (1983): 139-186. in JSTOR
  • Tatlock, Lynne and Matt Erlin, eds. German Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Reception, Adaptation, Transformation. (2005).
  • Tischauser, Leslie V. The Burden of Ethnicity: The German Question in Chicago, 1914–1941. (1990).
  • Tolzmann, Don H., ed. German Americans in the World Wars, 2 vols. Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur, (1995).
  • Tolzmann, Don H. German-American Literature (Scarecrow Press, 1977).
  • Trommler, Frank & Joseph McVeigh, eds. America and the Germans: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred-Year History. (2 vol 1985); vol 1: Immigration, Language, Ethnicity; vol 2: The Relationship in the Twentieth Century. Essays by scholars covering broad themes.
  • Turk, Eleanor L. "Germans in Kansas: Review Essay". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains 28 (Spring 2005): 44–71.
  • van Ravenswaay, Charles. The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: A Survey of a Vanishing Culture (1977; reprint University of Missouri Press, 2006).
  • Walker, Mack. Germany and the Emigration, 1816–1885 (1964).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. The German-Language Press in America. (1957).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. (1952).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. (1939), ch. 6, 9.
  • Wood, Ralph, ed. The Pennsylvania Germans. (1942).
  • Zeitlin, Richard. Germans in Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin (2000).

Historiografi sunting

  • Hustad, Bradley Jake. "Problems in Historiography: The Americanization of German Ethnics." (MA thesis, Mankato State University, 2013). online
  • Kazal, Russell A. "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept". American Historical Review 100 (1995): 437–71.
  • Ortlepp, Anke. "Deutsch-Athen Revisited: Writing the History of Germans in Milwaukee" in Margo Anderson and Victor Greene (eds.), Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
  • Miller, Zane L. "Cincinnati Germans and the Invention of an Ethnic Group", Queen City Heritage: The Journal of the Cincinnati Historical Society 42 (Fall 1984): 13–22.
  • Parish, Peter J., ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. hlm. 294–95. 

Sumber primer sunting

  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., and Wolfgang Helbich (Eds.). Germans in the Civil War; The Letters They Wrote Home. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Johannes Helbich and Ulrike Sommer (Eds.). News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
  • "German". Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey. Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. 1942 – via Newberry Library.  (English translations of selected German-language newspaper articles, 1855-1938).

Dalam bahasa Jerman sunting

Pranala luar sunting

Sejarah dan budaya Jerman-Amerika sunting

Organisasi Jerman-Amerika sunting

Sejarah dan budaya Jerman-Amerika lokal sunting