De facto: Perbedaan antara revisi

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'''''De facto''''' dalam [[bahasa Latin]] adalah ungkapan yang berarti "pada kenyataannya" atau "pada praktiknya". Istilah ini biasa digunakan sebagai kebalikan dari ''[[de jure]]'' (yang berarti "menurut hukum") ketika orang mengacu kepada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan [[hukum]], [[pemerintahan]], atau hal-hal teknis (seperti misalnya [[standardisasi|standar]]), yang ditemukan dalam pengalaman sehari-hari yang diciptakan atau berkembang tanpa atau berlawanan dengan peraturan. Bila orang sedang berbicara tentang suatu situasi hukum, ''de jure'' merujuk kepada apa yang dikatakan hukum, sementara ''de facto'' merujuk kepada apa yang terjadi pada praktiknya.
 
 
Contoh lain: tidak ada hukum yang menghalangi penambahan dengan huruf ke-27 seperti misalnya [[Þ]] (ucapan ''th'' dalam kata ''thorn'') ke dalam [[abjad]]. Malah di abad-abad yang lampau orang menambahkan huruf tanpa banyak kesulitan. Namun di masa kini hal itu tidak dimungkinkan karena akan menimbulkan berbagai kesulitan. Jadi, ada batas ''de facto'' dalam memodifikasi abjad. Penambahan huruf seperti itu tidak praktis karena tak seorangpun akan mengenalinya.
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A ''de facto'' standard is sometimes not formalized and may simply rely on the fact that someone has come up with a good idea that is liked so much that it is copied. Typical creators of ''de facto'' standards are individual [[types of companies|companies]], [[corporation | corporations]], and [[consortium|consortia]]. In computing, ''de facto'' standards can sometimes become ''de jure'' standards due to market superiority. For example, [[JavaScript]] by [[Netscape Communications Corporation|Netscape]] (standardized as [[ECMAScript]]) and parts of [[Document Object Model|DOM]] Level 0 (standardized in DOM Level 1/2 HTML Specification).
 
== National Language ==
The establishment of de facto national languages is used as a means of remaining unprejudice or biased. In the [[United States]], the federal government has no declared national language. [[English language|English]] is accepted as the de facto national language. To partially cope with this situation, the federal government has given states the right to declare their official language. This is not merely a formal permission not expected ever to be used; the official languages of [[New Mexico]] were Spanish and English upon its becoming a state. Similiarly, in the former [[Soviet Union]], [[Russian language|Russian]] was not the official language, but by de facto. The same situation occurs in the [[United Kingdom|UK]] (except in [[Wales]] where English and [[Welsh language|Welsh]] are jointly equal official languages by law).
 
== Politics ==
In politics, a '''''de facto'' leader''' of a country or region is one who has assumed authority, regardless of whether by lawful, constitutional, or legitimate means; very frequently the term is reserved for those whose power is thought by some faction to be held by unlawful, unconstitutional, or otherwise illegitimate means, often by deposing a previous leader or undermining the rule of a current one. ''De facto'' leaders need not hold a constitutional office, and may exercise power in an informal manner. Their authority cannot be denied however, which forces their position as ruler to be recognized.
 
Not all [[dictator]]s are ''de facto'' rulers. For example, [[Augusto Pinochet]] of [[Chile]] initially came to power as the chairman of a [[military junta]], which briefly made him ''de facto'' leader of Chile, but then he later amended the nation's constitution and made himself [[President]], making him the formal and legal ruler of Chile. Similarly, [[Saddam Hussein]]'s formal rule of [[Iraq]] is often recorded as beginning in [[1979]], the year he assumed the [[Iraqi Presidency|President of Iraq]]. However, in practice his ''de facto'' rule of the nation began at an earlier date, as during his time as [[vice president]] he exercised a great deal of power at the expense of the elderly [[Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr]].
 
Another example of a '''''de facto'' ruler''' is someone who is not the actual ruler, but exerts great or total influence over the true ruler, which is quite common in monarchies. Some examples of these de-facto rulers are [[Empress Dowager Cixi]] of China (for son [[Tongzhi Emperor|Tongzhi]] and nephew [[Guangxu Emperor|Guangxu]] Emperors), Prince [[Alexander Menshikov]] (for his former lover Empress [[Catherine I]] of Russia), [[Cardinal Richelieu]] of France (for [[Louis XIII of France|Louis XIII]]), and Queen [[Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily]] (for her husband King [[Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies]]).
 
Some notable true ''de facto'' leaders have been [[Deng Xiaoping]] of the [[People's Republic of China]] and General [[Manuel Noriega]] of [[Panama]]. Both of these men exercised near-total control over their respective nations for many years, despite not having either legal constitutional office or the legal authority to exercise power. These individuals are today commonly recorded as the "leaders" of their respective nations; recording their legal, correct title would not give an accurate assesment of their power. Terms like [[strongman]] are often used to refer to defacto rulers of this sort.
 
The term '''''[[de facto head of state|de facto]]'' [[head of state]]''' is sometimes used to describe the [[governor general]] in a [[Commonwealth Realm]], or one who rules [[List of French phrases#L|in ''lieu'']] of the legal (''[[de jure]]'', or juridical) head of state (e.g., [[United Kingdom|British]] [[monarch]]).
 
The '''''de facto''''' '''boundaries''' of a country are defined by the area that its government is actually able to enforce its laws in, and to defend against encroachments by other countries that may also claim the same territory ''de jure''; the [[line of control]] in [[Kashmir]] is an example of a de facto boundary. As well as cases of [[border dispute]]s, ''de facto'' boundaries may also arise in relatively unpopulated areas when the border was never formally established, or when the agreed border was never [[survey]]ed and its exact position is unclear. The same concepts may also apply to a boundary between provinces or other subdivisions of a [[federation|federal state]].
 
Similarly, a nation with '''''de facto''''' '''independence''' is one that is not recognized by other nations or by international bodies, even though it has its own government that exercises absolute control over its claimed territory..
 
== Other usages ==
'''''De facto''''' '''[[racial segregation]]''' often occurs because users of a given facility, such as a library or school, tend to be residents of that neighborhood and so reflect its ethnic makeup. The facility tends to become racially or ethnically segregated without any law calling for ''de jure'' segregation, if the same applies to the neighborhood.
 
A '''''de facto''''' '''[[monopoly]]''' is a system where many suppliers of a product are allowed, but the market is so completely dominated by one that the others might as well not exist. (Similarly for related terms such as [[oligopoly]] and [[monopsony]].) This is the type of situation that [[antitrust]] laws are intended to eliminate, when they are used.
 
One's [[marriage|unmarried]] [[domestic partnership|partner]] is referred to as the '''''de facto''''' '''husband''' or '''wife''' by some authorities. This has passed into [[Australia]]n casual usage, in contrast to other English-speaking countries, as the slang term '''defacto''' to refer to one's significant other. e.g. "This is my defacto, Rachel". This is equivalent to the term ''common-law'' husband or wife used in most other [[English language|English-speaking]] countries.-->
 
== Lihat pula ==
* [[De jure]]
 
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