Livia: Perbedaan revisi

217 bita ditambahkan ,  3 tahun yang lalu
Ada desas-desus ketika Marcellus, keponakan laki-laki Augustus, mati pada tahun 23 SM, bukan karena kematian alamiah, dan bahwa Livia di belakangnya.<ref>Cassius Dio 55.33.4</ref>&nbsp;Setelah dua&nbsp; anak tertua Juliaarcus Vipsanius Agrippa, yang telah diadopsi oleh Augustus sebagai putra-putra dan penerusnya, mati, satu putra tersisa&nbsp;Agrippa Postumus&nbsp;diadopsi pada waktu yang sama dengan Tiberius, tetapi kemudian Agrippa Postumus dikirim ke suatu pulau dan akhirnya dibunuh. [[Tacitus]] menuduh bahwa Livia bukannya tidak bersalah atas kematian-kematian tersebut<ref>Tacitus [http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/tac/index.htm ''Annals.''] 1.3; 1.6. (The Works of Tacitus tr. by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb 1864–1877),</ref>&nbsp;dan&nbsp;[[Cassius Dio]]&nbsp;Juga menyebutkan desas-desus itu.<ref>Cassius Dio 53.33.4, 55.10A, 55.32; 57.3.6</ref>&nbsp;Ada juga gosip yang dicatat oleh Tacitus dan Cassius Dio bahwa Livia menyebabkan kematian Augustus dengan meracuni buah-buah ara segar.<ref>Tacitus ''Annals'' 1.5</ref><ref>Cassius Dio 55.22.2; 56.30</ref>&nbsp;Cucu Augustus, Julia the Younger, menikah dengan Lucius Aemilius Paullus dan antara tahun 1 dan 14, suaminya dihukum mati sebagai konspirator sebuah revolusi.<ref>Suetonius, ''The Lives of Caesars'', Life of Augustus 19</ref>&nbsp;Para sejarawan modern&nbsp; berteori bahwa pengasinganJulia's ini bukan karena perzinahan sebagai yang diumumkan melainkan karena keterlibatan dalam revolusi Paullus.<ref>Norwood, Frances, "The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio" ''Classical Philology'' (1963) p. 154</ref> Livia Drusilla telah mengatur untuk menghancurkan keluarga cucu tirinya sehingga muncul belas kasihan umum kepada keluarga yang hancur itu. Julia mati pada tahun 29 M setelah hidup di pulau pengasingannya selama dua puluh tahun<ref>Tacitus, ''Ann.'' IV, 71</ref>
== Kehidupan setelah Augustus, kematian, dan sesudahnya ==
<!--Augustus diedmati onpada Augusttanggal 19, Agustus 14 ADM, beingdan [[:en:Imperial cult (ancient Rome)|deifieddijadikan dewa]] by theoleh SenateSenat shortlysegera afterwardssetelahnya. InDalam hissurat willwasiatnya, heia leftmewariskan onesepertiga thirdhartanya of his property tokepada Livia, anddan thedua otherpertiga twolainnya thirds tokepada [[Tiberius]]. InDalam thesurat will,wasiat heitu, alsoia adoptedjuga hermengadopsinya intoke thedalam [[:en:Julia (gens)|Juliankeluarga familyJulian]] anddan granted her themenganugerahkannya [[:en:Augusta (honorific)|honorificgelar title ofkehormatan Augusta]]. TheseDisposisi dispositionsini permittedmengizinkan Livia to maintainuntuk hermempertahankan status anddan powerkekuasaannya aftersetelah herkematian husband's deathsuaminya, under thedi newbawah namenama ofbaru '''Julia Augusta'''. Tacitus anddan Cassius Dio wrotemenulis thatadanya rumoursgosip persistedkuat thatbahwa Augustus wasdiracuni poisoned byoleh Livia, buttetapi theseumumnya aredianggap mainlykarangan dismissedjahat asyang maliciousdisebarkan fabricationsoleh spreadpara bymusuh politicalpolitik enemieswangsa of the dynastyitu. TheGosip mostpaling famousterkenal ofadalah these rumors was thatbahwa Livia, unabletidak toberhasil poisonmeracuni his food inmakanannya thedi kitchensdapur becausekarena Augustus insistedmemaksa onhanya only eatingmakan [[:en:ficus carica|figsbuah ara]] pickedyang freshdipetik fromsegar hisdari gardenkebunnya, smearedmeleleti eachsetiap fruitbuah withdengan poisonracun whileketika stillmasih ondi thepohon treeuntuk to pre-emptmengatasi himpencegahannya.<ref>{{cite book| title=Roman History 54.30| author=Cassius Dio}}</ref> InPada Imperialzaman timesImperial, abanyak varietyvarietas ofbuah figara cultivateddibiakkan indi Romankebun-kebun gardensRomawi was called thedinamai ''Liviana'', perhapsmungkin becausekarena ofketrampilan herhortikulturalnya reputedyang horticultural abilitiesterkenal, oratau assebagai arujukan [[:en:tongue-in-cheek|sinis]] reference topada thisgosip rumorini.<ref>{{cite book| title=Confronting the Classics| author=Mary Beard| year=2014| p=131}}</ref>
[[File:KunsthistorischesMuseumCameeLivia.jpg|thumb|upright|right|[[Sardonyx]] [[:en:Cameo (carving)|cameo]] Livia dengan patung dada Divus Augustus (Vienna)]]
ForUntuk somebeberapa timelama, Livia anddan her sonputranya Tiberius, theKaisar newyang Emperorbaru, appearednampak toakur getsatu alongsama with each otherlain. SpeakingMengecam againstLivia hermenjadi becamekejahatan treasonpengkhianatan inpada ADtahun 20, anddan inpada ADtahun 24 heTiberius grantedmenganugerahkan hisibunya mothersatu akursi theaterteater seatdi among theantara [[:en:Vestal Virgin|para Vestal Virgin]]s.<!-- Livia exercised unofficial but very real power in Rome. Eventually, Tiberius became resentful of his mother's political status, particularly against the idea that it was she who had given him the throne. At the beginning of his reign Tiberius vetoed the unprecedented title ''Mater Patriae'' ("Mother of the Fatherland") that the Senate wished to bestow upon her, in the same manner in which Augustus had been named ''[[Pater Patriae]]'' ("Father of the Fatherland")<ref name = Hurley/> (Tiberius also consistently refused the title of ''Pater Patriae'' for himself).
 
The historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio depict an overweening, even domineering dowager, ready to interfere in Tiberius’ decisions, the most notable instances being the case of [[Urgulania]] (grandmother of Claudius's first wife [[Plautia Urgulanilla]]), a woman who correctly assumed that her friendship with the empress placed her above the law,<ref name = Cassius57.12>Cassius Dio, 57.12</ref><ref>Tacitus, 2.34</ref> and [[Munatia Plancina]], suspected of murdering [[Germanicus]] and saved at Livia's entreaty<ref>Tacitus, 3.17</ref> (Plancina committed suicide in AD 33 after being accused again of murder after Livia's death). A notice from AD 22 records that Julia Augusta (Livia) dedicated a statue to Augustus in the center of Rome, placing her own name even before that of Tiberius.-->
 
AncientPara historianssejarawan givekuno asberalasan abahwa reason forkepindahan Tiberius' retirementuntuk toberistirahat di [[Capri]] hisadalah inabilitykarena totidak enduretahan herterhadap any longeribunya.<ref name = Cassius57.12/><ref>Tacitus, 4.57</ref> UntilSampai tahun [[AD 22]] there had, according tomenurut Tacitus, beenada "aharmoni genuinesejati [[harmony]]antara betweenibu motherdan and sonanak, oratau akebencian hatredyang welldisembunyikan dengan concealedbaik;"<ref name = Tacitus3.64>Tacitus, 3.6eirca4</ref> Dio tellsmencatat usbahwa thatpada atsaat thenaik timetahta, ofTiberius hissudah accessionsecara alreadyserius Tiberius heartily loathedmembenci heribunya.<ref>Cassius Dio, 57.3.3</ref> -->Pada tahun 22 Livia jatuh sakit dan Tiberius bergegas pulang ke Roma untuk menemaninya.<ref name = Tacitus3.64/> Pada tahun [[29]] M ketika ia jatuh sakit lagi dan mati, Tibetius tetap tinggal di Capri, dengan alasan tekanan pekerjaan, mengutus [[Caligula]] untuk menyampaikan orasi pemakaman.<ref>Tacitus, 5.1</ref><ref>Cassius Dio, 58.2</ref><ref name = Suetonius51>Suetonius. [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Tiberius*.html Vita Tiberii]. (The Life of Tiberius) 51.</ref> <!--Suetonius addsmenambahkan thedetail macabre detail thatbahwa "whenketika sheia diedmati... aftersetelah aditunda delaybeberapa of several dayshari, duringdi whichmana hediharapkan held(Tiberius) outakan hope of his comingdatang, [sheakhirnya was at lastia/Livia] burieddikuburkan becausekarena thekondisi conditionjenazahnya oftidak themengizinkan corpse made it necessarylagi...". DivineGelar-gelar honorskehormatan heLivia alsojuga vetoed,diveto statingoleh thatTiberius, thisdengan waspernyataan inbahwa accordini withsesuai herdengan ownkeinginan instructionsLivia. LaterKemudian heia vetoedjuga allmemveto thesemua honorskehormatan theyang Senatediberikan hadSenat grantedsetelah herkematiannya afterdan hermembatalkan death and cancelled the fulfillment ofpelaksanaan hersurat willwasiatnya.<ref name = Suetonius51/>
[[File:Livia Drusila - Paestum (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpg|thumb|left|180px|Patung Livia Drusilla, dari [[Paestum]].]]
It was not untilBaru 13 yearstahun laterkemudian, inpada ADtahun 42 duringpada the reign ofmasa herpemerintahan grandsoncucunya [[Claudius]], thatsemua allkehormatan herLivia honorsdipulihkan weredan restoredpendewaannya andakhirnya her deification finally completeddilengkapi. She was namedIa dinamai ''Diva Augusta'' ("Agusta Ilahi"; ''The Divine Augusta''), anddan ankereta elephant-drawnyang chariotditarik conveyedgajah hermembawa imagegambarnya toke allsemua publicpertandingan gamespublik. ASebuah statuepatungnya ofdidirikan her was set up in thedi [[:en:Temple of Divus Augustus|Temple of Augustus]] alongbersama withpatung her husband'ssuaminya, racesperlombaan werediadakan helduntuk in her honormenghormatinya, and women were todan invokepara herwanita namemenyebut innamanya theiruntuk sacredsumpah oathssuci. InPada ADtahun 410, during theketika [[:En:Sack of Rome (410)|Sack of Rome]], herabunya ashesdisebar werepada scatteredsaat whenmakam Augustus' tomb was sackeddihancurkan.
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Her [[Villa of Livia|Villa ad Gallinas Albas]] north of Rome is currently being excavated; its famous frescoes of imaginary garden views may be seen at [[National Museum of Rome]].<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2002/2002-07-18.html|title=Review of: The Villa of Livia Ad Gallinas Albas. A Study in the Augustan Villa and Garden. Archaeologica Transatlantica XX|first=Susann S.|last=Lusnia|date=29 October 2016|publisher=|journal=BMCR|accessdate=29 October 2016|via=Bryn Mawr Classical Review}}</ref> One of the most famous statues of Augustus (the [[Augustus of Prima Porta]]) came from the grounds of the villa.