Dover, Kent: Perbedaan antara revisi

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[[Image:arms-dover.jpg|thumb|170px|Arms of Dover Borough Council]]
:<div class="dablink">''Artikel ini membahas kota pelabuhan Inggris. Untuk distrik pemerintahan setempat yang lebih luas, lihat [[Dover (distrik)|Distrik Dover]]. Untuk penggunaan lain, lihat [[Dover (disambiguasi)]].</div>
{{Disambig info}}
 
'''Dover''' adalah sebuah pelabuhan besar di [[Selat Inggris|selat]] port di kabupaten [[Kent]] di [[Inggris]]. Menurut sensus [[2001]], kota Dover sendiri berpenduduk 28.156 orang, sementara penduduk seluruh [[wilayah perkotaan]] Dover, menurut perhitungan [[Kantor Statistik Nasional]], adalah 39.078 orang. (Rujukan luar: [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8271&More=Y]). Kota ini adalah pusat administratif [[Dover (distrik)|Distrik Dover]].
 
Dover diwakili di Parlemen oleh anggota parlemen [[Partai Buruh (Britania Raya)|Buruh]], [[Gwyn Prosser]].
 
<!--Since 1836 the town of Dover (originally being the two parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James) has incorporated the ancient villages and parishes of Buckland and Charlton. These are now suburbs of the town.
 
Most of the western half of the town is in Hougham parish and a small part of the eastern section and [[Dover Castle]] are in Guston parish
 
'''Maxton''' was once a hamlet of Hougham parish to the west of Dover, and the terminus of the [[Rail transport|tramway]] system serving the town until its closure in [[1936]]. It is now a suburb of the town.
 
==History==
 
{{for|events and history related to Dover Castle|Dover Castle}}
 
As the closest point in Britain to France, Dover has been strategically important, vulnerable to invasion and an important port for millennia.
 
===Bronze Age===
{{main|Bronze Age#Bronze Age boats}}
In [[1992]], a waterlogged [[boat]] was discovered in a depth of 6 m that dates to the [[Bronze Age]] and is one of the oldest seagoing vessels ever recovered. It has been dated by the [[radiocarbon dating|radiocarbon method]] to ca. [[1550 BC]].
 
The [[Langdon Bay]] [[hoard]], discovered in [[1974]] off the Dover coast, contains bronze axes of a French type and may represent the cargo of a sunken vessel, thus demonstrating cross-channel [[trade]] already for the Bronze Age, if not earlier. Both this hoard and the boat are on display in a new purpose-built gallery of the [[Dover Museum, England|Dover Museum]] in Market Square.
 
===Roman===
{{main|Dubris}}
In [[Roman Empire|Roman]] times it became an important fortified port named ''[[Portus Dubris]]''. Dover was the starting point of the [[Watling Street]] Roman road, and was an important harbour of the [[Roman navy#Classis Britannica|Classis Britannica]].
 
In around [[50|AD 50]] the Romans built two lighthouses, one on either side of the then-river-[[estuary]] (now [[silt]]ed-up, one on the [[Dover Western Heights|Western Heights]] whose few remains are now within the [[Drop Redoubt]], and the other which still stands to its full height in the grounds of [[Dover Castle]], making it one of the oldest buildings in [[United Kingdom|Britain]]. The "[[Dubris#Roman Painted House|Painted House]]" is a Roman [[mansio]] from about [[200|AD 200]] and one of the best preserved Roman houses in Britain. On the same site and nearby there is also a [[Roman Navy#Classis Britannica|Classis Britannica]] fort and the [[Saxon Shore Forts|Saxon Shore Fort]] which was built over them both.
 
===Anglo-Saxon and Norman, to 1200===
[[image:Dover_Seafront_And_Castle.jpg|thumb|left|230px|Dover seafront, with the castle overlooking the beach.]]
[[image:Dal_castello_di_Dover.jpg|thumb|left|230px|The English Channel as seen from Dover Castle.]]
After the [[Battle of Hastings]] in October 1066, [[William the conqueror]] (or [[William the Bastard]] as he is known in Kent) and his forces marched to [[Westminster Abbey]] for his coronation. They took a roundabout route, via [[Romney]], Dover, Canterbury, Surrey and Berkshire. From the [[Cinque Ports]]'s foundation in 1050, Dover has always been a chief member - it may also have been this that first attracted William's attention, and got Kent the motto of [[Invicta]]. In the words of [[William of Poitiers]]:
:Then he marched to Dover, which had been reported impregnable and held by a large force. The English, stricken with fear at his approach had confidence neither in their ramparts nor in the numbers of their troops ... While the inhabitants were preparing to surrender unconditionally, [the Normans], greedy for booty, set fire to the castle and the great part of it was soon enveloped in flames...[William then paid for the repair and] having taken possession of the castle, the Duke spent eight days adding new fortifications to it'.
 
Quote taken from "The Kent Invicta Horse" webpage ([http://www.kentwings.com/public/about%20us/Invicta%20Horse.htm Invicta Horse])<blockquote>
"The "Invicta" motto is associated with the story of the Treaty of Swanscombe in 1067: according to local legend, William the Bastard, having seized the English throne, was travelling to Dover when he was met by the Cantware (the People of Kent). They demanded from him their ancient laws and rights, in which case he would have their loyalty, or else "battle most deadly". William granted the request, and Kent acceded to his reign by treaty, hence getting the motto "Invicta"
(unconquered). I have lived in Kent all my life, and can vouch for the fact that William is never styled "Conqueror" by anyone native to the County.
Karl Wittwer, 24 July 2004"
</blockquote>
 
Archaeological evidence suggests that a new castle was constructed near the Saxon church of St. Mary de Castro in what is now [[Dover Castle]], rather than or as well as repairing the old burgh.
 
The [[Domesday Book]] of only 20 years later states that before the conquest Dover's value had been £18 but was now £40. Clearly Dover had quickly been rebuilt.
 
The Normans also built the churches of [[St Mary the Virgin, Dover]] (on the foundations of a Roman structure - it still stands) and of St. James the Apostle (as an aisleless nave with a short tower - perhaps on the site of a Saxon church partly destroyed in 1066 - destroyed in World War Two, ruins visible) and reconstituted the Saxon monastic church of St Martin le Grand, as well as founding a new [[Dover Priory]] on another site, also dedicated to St. Martin. Several surviving buildings and various ruins of Dover Priory have been incorporated in to Dover College
 
===Medieval===
[[Image:Dover Harbour.jpg|thumb|250px|Dover Harbour viewed from the Castle]]
[[Image:Dover from air.jpg|thumb|250px|Dover Harbour viewed from a plane]]
St Martin le Grand dominated Market Square, being over 150 feet long. It housed the altars of three parish churches; St. Mary, St. Nicholas and St. John the Baptist and had the churches of St. Peter and St. James subordinate to it. The church was finally dismantled around 1540 although the remains of some of the walls survived into the 19th century.
 
In [[1216]], [[First Barons' War|Dover was attacked by the French]] and successfully defended from [[Dover Castle]] by [[Hubert de Burgh]] - it was less lucky in [[1295]] when 10,000 French burnt most of Dover to the ground. It nevertheless flourished as the closest port to the continent.
 
Medieval buildings:
*[[Maison Dieu]]
 
===Tudors===
Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, both threatened by continental invasion,also made improvements to Dover's defences, both the castle and Moat Bulwark (making a personal visit to the castle to do so).
 
===Stuarts===
During the Civil War Dover declared for the king but was captured by the Parliamentarians without a siege. [[Charles II of England|Charles II]] landed here at the [[English Restoration|restoration]] and on [[May 26]], [[1670]] signed a secret treaty here ending hostilities with [[Louis XIV of France]].
 
===Napoleonic Wars===
{{Main|Dover Western Heights}}
Dover became a garrison town heavily defended against the threat of French invasion. Napoleon's troops, gathered at Boulogne, could be seen from Dover on a clear day.
 
At first earthen batteries were built along the seafront and across the [[Dover Western Heights|Western Heights]] (to supplement the medieval castle, which had been superseded by developments in military technology and artillery). These were later improved in [[1804]] with a massive building programme in stone and brick on the Western Heights, creating two cutting-edge forts, deep brick-lined ditches, and the [[Grand Shaft]], a unique 140ft triple staircase, linking the town to the forts and enabling troops from the hilltop barracks to be rapidly deployed at the seafront.
 
===19th century===
Between 1801 and 1901 the population increased by 600 percent. The habour was finally rebuilt as a set of artificial moles, and the town tried to become a seaside resort by building a pleasure pier, ice rink, bathing machines and impressive seafront crescents of hotels and apartments. The [[South Eastern Railway (UK)|South Eastern Railway]] arrived in [[1844]] and cross-channel traffic boomed - the town were even combined with boat trains and the [[Golden Arrow]] service.
 
===20th century===
[[Image:white_cliffs_of_dover_09_2004.jpg|thumb|left|The white cliffs of Dover]]
[[Image:Dovermap1945.jpg|thumb|left|A Map of Dover from 1945]]
[[Image:Pillbox Dover Quad, Western Heights, Dover.JPG|thumb|right|Dover Quad type pillbox on the [[Dover Western Heights|Western Heights]]]]
 
In the [[20th century]] Dover became the centre of English Channel defence during [[World War I]], as the base for the [[Dover Patrol]].
 
In [[World War I]] it was, with [[Folkestone]], one of the main troop embarkation ports for France. It was also bombed by aeroplanes and [[zeppelin]]s (the first bomb to be dropped on England fell near Dover Castle on Christmas Eve 1914) and shelled by passing warships. This forced residents to shelter in caves and dug-outs. The town became known as 'Fortress Dover' and was put under martial law.
 
In [[World War II]] this developed into sustained bombing and shelling by cross-channel guns, causing 3,059 alerts, killing 216 civilians, and damaging 10,056 premises. A series of underground caves and tunnels in the cliffs were used as air-raid shelters (and as a military base, coordinating [[Operation Dynamo]], whose ships landed at Dover) during the war and Dover became a wartime symbol as part of East Kent's '[[Hellfire Corner]]'.
 
Defences were constructed as a part of [[British anti-invasion preparations of World War II|anti-invasion preparations]]. The defences included a large number of [[British hardened field defences of World War II|pillboxes]], trenchworks, minefields.<ref>Foot, 2006, p209-217.</ref>
 
==Education==
{{section-stub}}
*[[Dover Grammar School for Boys]] Specialist Business College
* Astor College for the Arts - the first specialist Arts College in Kent [http://www.astorcollege.com Astor College Website]
* Dover Grammar School for Girls
* St Edmund's Roman Catholic School: Specialist College for the Performing Arts
* Archers Court Maths and Computing College
* South Kent College
* [[Dover College]]
* [[Duke of York's Royal Military School]]
* The Harbour School
And various primary schools including:
* Melbourne School
* Temple Ewell
* River
* Guston
* Priory Fields
* St Martin's
* St Richard's
* St Mary's
* St Radigund's
* Aycliffe
* Vale View
* Whitfield
* Shatterlocks Infants School
* Barton Junior School
* Charlton Primary School
* Powell CP School
 
==Sport==
*[[Dover Athletic F.C.]] are Dover's [[Football (soccer)|football]] team. They are a non-league side.
*[[Dover Life Guard Club]] are Dover's competitive swimming club.
*[[Dover Sharks R.F.C.]] are Dover's competitive Rugby Union team. They are non- league.
*[[Dover Rowing Club]] are Dover's competitive Rowing club
 
==Places of interest==
* [[Dover Castle]] ([http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=51128462&x=1323638&z=17&l=0&m=s&v=2 Wikipmapia])
* [[Admiralty Pier Turret]]
* [[Dover Western Heights]]
* [[Fort Burgoyne]]
* [[North Downs Way]]
* [[Dubris#Roman Painted House|Roman Painted House]]
* [[Saxon Shore Way]]
 
Other interesting places:
* Dover Transport Museum [http://www.dovertransportmuseum.homestead.com Dover Transport Mus Website]
* Dover Museum, and Bronze Age Boat [http://www.dovermuseum.co.uk Dover Museum Website]
* Kearsney Abbey
* Russell Gardens
* Samphire Hoe Nature Reserve
* Cowgate Nature Reserve
* Connaught Park
* Seafront promenade
* St Edmund's Chapel
* Dover Port [http://www.doverport.co.uk Dover Harbour Board]
 
==Famous Residents==
* [[Joss Stone]] born [[Joscelyn Eve Stoker]] was born in Dover's Buckland Hospital in 1987 before moving to Ashill, Devon at the age of 6. Whilst in Dover she briefly attended St. Mary's CofE primary school.
* [[Charlotte Bellamy]] the actress who plays Laurel Potts in [[Emmerdale]] was born in Dover.
* [[Topper Headon]] of 'The Clash' fame now lives in River on the outskirts of Dover
* [[Shane Taylor]] the actor was born and raised in Dover attending Dover's Astor College for the Arts where his father is the caretaker and groundsman.
* [[Kirsty Palmer]] a ginger singer who has recently released her first album 'Just'. She was born in Dover's Buckland Hospital in 1988, attended Dover's Girls Grammar School and now resides in [[Hawkinge]]. She currently went to university to study Geography.
[http://www.kirstypalmer.co.uk Kirsty Palmer Official Website]
* 'User Friendly' rock/metal band that includes Dover members 'Tick' Brown and Andy McFarnell. The band is Dover based. 'Tick' is a lifelong friend of 'Topper' Headon from [[The Clash]] as they both live in [[River, Kent]] near to Dover.[http://www.userfriendlydover.homestead.com User Friendly Official Website]
* [[Simon Cowell]] of 'Pop Idol' & 'X Factor' fame attended Dover College during the 1970s.
* [[Jeffrey Archer]] of varied fame, taught as a [[Physical Education]] teacher at [[Dover College]] during the 1960s.
 
==Health Care==
Dover has one hospital, Buckland Hospital located in a former Victorian [[workhouse]] on Coombe Valley Road. The town once had 4 hospitals, Buckland, Royal Victoria, Isolation and the Eye Hospitals located at various points across the town plus the hidden Underground Hospital underneath Dover Castle which was a secret hospital for use during [[World War 2]]. Buckland Hospital is currently threatened with closure and a local campaign backed by the [http://doversoul.tripod.com Dover Soul Website] and various local organisations are trying to stop the cuts facing the hospital. Buckland Hospital also has a hospital radio station founded in 1968, the [http://www.ghbs.org.uk Gateway Hospital Broadcasting Service] is the oldest hospital radio station in East Kent.-->
 
== Media setempat ==
*{{cite book |title=History of Dover with a bibliography |last= Statham |location=London |year=1899}}
 
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[[Kategori:Pelabuhan di Kent]]