Hizbullah (Lebanon)

organisasi teroris radikal mengatasnamakan Islam

Hizbullah (bahasa Arab: ‮حزب الله‬ Hezbollah, bahasa Indonesia: "Partai Allah / Partai Tuhan") adalah organisasi Politik dan Paramiliter dari kelompok Syiah didirikan pada tahun 1982 yang berbasis di Libanon.[22] Sejak didirikan, organisasi ini telah berkembang menjadi organisasi yang bercampur ke dalam strukur sosial Lebanon melalui pelayanan sosial dan partisipasi aktif dalam politik sambil tetap melancarkan serangan teror internasional dan operasi-operasi militer regional. Kelompok ini secara rutin berselisih dengan Israel dan menentang pengaruh barat di Lebanon, dan yang paling baru adalah terlibat dalam perang saudara di Suriah sebagai pendukung pemerintah Assad.[23][22] Kelompok ini dianggap sebagai organisasi teroris oleh Amerika Serikat, Israel, Kanada, dan Australia.[24][25][26][27]

Hizbullah

حزب الله
Ḥizbullāh
Sekretaris JenderalHassan Nasrallah
Dibentuk1985; 36 tahun lalu (1985) (resmi)
Kantor pusatBeirut, Lebanon
Sayap parlemenLoyalitas pada Blok Perlawanan
Sayap paramiliterPerlawanan Islam di Lebanon Brigade Perlawanan Lebanon
Ideologi (secara resmi ditolak)[7]
AgamaIslam Syiah
Afiliasi nasionalAliansi 8 Maret
Warna
  • Kuning
  • Hijau
Sloganbahasa Arab: فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلْغَالِبُونَ
"Maka sungguh, pengikut (agama) Allah itulah yang menang" [Qur'an Al-Ma’idah:56]
Parlemen[8]
13 / 128 (10%)
Situs web
www.moqawama.org
Hizbullah
Waktu operasi1985–sekarang
Kelompok
MarkasLebanon
Jumlah anggota20.000 sampai 50.000
SekutuNegara sekutu:

Sekutu non-negara:


Lihat lebih banyak
LawanNegara lawan:

Lawan non-negara:

Pertempuran dan perang

OrganisasiSunting

 
Bagan Organisasi Hezbollah oleh Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh.

Pada awalnya para pemimpin Hizbullah mengatakan bahwa gerakan ini bukanlah sebagai sebuah organisasi, oleh karena itu tidak mempunyai kartu anggota, hiraki kepemimpinan [28] dan struktur organisasi [29] yang jelas

Organ propagandaSunting

Hisbullah mempunyai majalah mingguan Kabdat Alla serta penyiaran satelit, radio Al Nour dan televisi Al-Manar yang pernah melakukan penyiarkan 29 bagian episode mengenai konspirasi Yahudi di seluruh dunia dengan judul Al-Shatat yang diklaim oleh sementara pihak sebagai alat agitasi dan propaganda yang bersifat menyebarkan Antisemitisme [30][31][32] dan 3 bulan kemudian setelah penyiaran Al-Shafat sebuah lembaga Jerman bernama Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES) pusat pemikir yang dekat dengan Partai Sosial Demokrat Jerman (German Social Democratic Party - SPD) bersama-sama dengan Hizbullah "research department" membuat konferensi bersama di Beirut dengan tema "The Islamic World and Europe: From Dialogue to Agreement" [33][34]

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Diarsipkan 10 March 2016 di Wayback Machine., Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
  2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. hlm. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2. 
    Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. hlm. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3. 
    Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695. 
  3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Laporan). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. hlm. 7–8. Diakses tanggal 13 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. hlm. 356. ISBN 9781849043335. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives. 
    Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Blumenau, Bernhard (2013). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. hlm. 267. ISBN 9780415635400. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel. 
    Siegel, Larry J. (3 February 2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. hlm. 396. ISBN 978-1133049647. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings. 
  5. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama bbc-hi-me
  6. ^ Julius, Anthony. Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
    Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015.
    Perry, Mark. Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies. Via Google Books. 1 May 2015
    "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post. 
  7. ^ Joshua L. Gleis; Benedetta Berti (2012). Hezbollah and Hamas: A Comparative Study. ISBN 9781421406718. 
  8. ^ "Interior Ministry releases numbers of votes for new MPs". The Daily Star. 9 May 2018. 
  9. ^ a b "Hezbollah fighters train Iraqi Shiite militants near Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. 5 November 2016. 
  10. ^ "New Experience of Hezbollah with Russian Military". 2 February 2016. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  11. ^ Rosenfeld, Jesse (11 January 2016). "Russia is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast. 
  12. ^ "Hezbollah Fights Alongside LAF Demonstrating its Continuing Control over Lebanon". The Tower. 21 August 2017. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2 February 2020. Diakses tanggal 28 July 2018. 
  13. ^ a b "Archived copy". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 15 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 28 July 2018. 
  14. ^ McElroy, Damien (29 July 2014). "North Korea denies reports of missile deal with Hamas". The Daily Telegraph. 
  15. ^ "Yemeni FM slams Hezbollah's Houthi support: report". THE DAILY STAR. 
  16. ^ "Lebanon's Hezbollah denies sending weapons to Yemen". Reuters. 20 November 2017. 
  17. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013. 
  18. ^ Francis, Xavier (21 May 2020). "Israel Impressed How Turkish Army Crushed Hezbollah In Idlib, Syria". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. 
  19. ^ "Israel learned from Hezbollah's defeat at the hands of Turkey". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. 
  20. ^ "Turkish strike in Syria kills nine Hezbollah members, according to source". Haaretz.com. 
  21. ^ Dr. Nimrod Raphaeli (11 February 2009). "The Iranian Roots of Hizbullah". MEMRI. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 11 February 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Jamail, Dahr (2006-07-20). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2006-07-20. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-07. 
  23. ^ "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 2008-09-13. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2008-09-13. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-07. 
  24. ^ British Home office official listing Diarsipkan 2009-03-18 di Wayback Machine. of Proscribed terrorist groups
  25. ^ "UK ban on Hezbollah military arm". BBC News. 2008-02-07. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-07. 
  26. ^ "Australian National Security Listing". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2009-05-19. Diakses tanggal 2009-02-08. 
  27. ^ arabmediawatch.com
  28. ^ al-Nahar al-Arabi walduwali, 10-16 June 1985; and La Revue du Liban, 27 July-3 August 1985. quoted in Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p.41
  29. ^ Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 64
  30. ^ Lihat: Avi Jorisch, "Al-Manar: Hizbollah TV," Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2004. lihat pula Lisbeth Rausing, "Frequenzen des Hasses. Wie die Hisbollah ihre Mordpropaganda nach Europe trdgt," Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), Vol. 13, March 2004 (German).
  31. ^ "In the Israeli-occupied territories," declared the most prominent of the German participants, Christoph Zv bel, "force is used on a daily basis," as a result of which Hizbollah also thinks in terms of "changing the situation through the use of force." See "Die Hisbollah ist eine Kraft unter vielen," interview with Christoph Zv bel in JungleWorld, 25 February 2004 (German). On the relationship between Islamic anti-Semitism and Israeli policy, see Matthias K|ntzel, "The Roots of Delusion," on the website: http://www.matthiaskuentzel.de.
  32. ^ Leon Poliakov, Vom Antizionismus zum Anti-Semitismus (Freiburg: ca ira- Verlag, 1992), p. 104 (German).
  33. ^ Along with the FES and the Hizbollah Consultative Centre for Studies and Documentation, the Deutsche Orient-Institut Beirut and the University of Birminham's Centre for the Study of Islam were also involved in organizing the conference, held on 17-19 February 2004. See the FES's press release of 23 February 2004.
  34. ^ Among the participants in the conference were Social Democratic MP Christoph Zv pel (between 1999 and 2002 a minister of state in the Foreign Office and currently spokesperson for the SPD's Middle East Dialogue Parliamentary Group), Michael L|ders and Helga Baumgarten (Middle East experts), Volker Perthes (from the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik think tank), AndrdGdrber (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung), Manfred Kropp (Deutsches Orient- Institut Beirut), and Friedemann B|ttner (FU Berlin).

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