Buka menu utama

Debat mengenai pengeboman Hiroshima dan Nagasaki

Awan jamur Fat Man muncul dari peledakan nuklir pada saat serangan di Nagasaki

Debat mengenai pengeboman Hiroshima dan Nagasaki terkait dengan kontroversi ethika, legal dan militer atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki yang dilakukan oleh Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 6 Agustus dan 9 Agustus 1945 demi mengakhiri Perang Dunia Kedua (1939–45). Di satu sisi dianggap sudah tepat karena terbukti membuat Jepang menyerah, namun di sisi yang lain dianggap tidak tepat karena banyaknya korban sipil yang berjatuhan.


Daftar pustaka
Allen, Thomas; Polmar, Norman (1995). Code-Name Downfall: The Secret Plan to Invade Japan—And Why Truman Dropped the Bomb. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80406-4. 
Alperovitz, Gar (2004) [1965]. Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam (edisi ke-2nd). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-745-30947-7. 
Anders, Roger M. (1986). "Military Library: Nuclear America by Gerard H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek; Japan's Secret War by Robert K. Wilcox". Military Affairs. 50 (1): 56–57. JSTOR 1988558. 
Appleman, Roy E.; Burns, James M.; Gugeler, Russell A.; Stevens, John (2000). Okinawa: The Last Battle. Washington, DC: United States Army Center of Military History. 
Axinn, Sidney (1986). "Honor, Patriotism, and Ultimate Loyalty". In Avner Cohen & Steven Lee, eds., Nuclear Weapons and the Future of Humanity: The Fundamental Questions (pp. 273–288). Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld. ISBN 978-0-847-67258-5. 
Bess, Michael (2006). Choices Under Fire: Moral Dimensions of World War II. New York, NY: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26365-0. 
Bevan, Robert (2007). The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-861-89638-4. 
Bix, Herbert P. (1996). "Japan's Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation". In Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (pp. 80–115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56206-5. 
——— (2000). Hirohito And The Making Of Modern Japan. London: Gerald Duckworth. ISBN 978-0-715-63077-8. 
Boyd, Carl; Yoshida, Akihiko (2002). The Japanese Submarine Force and World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-557-50015-1. 
Boyle, Francis A. (2002). The Criminality of Nuclear Deterrence. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press. ISBN 978-0-932-86333-1. 
Burrell, Robert S. (2006). The Ghosts of Iwo Jima. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-585-44483-0. 
Caney, Simon (2005). Justice beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-198-29350-7. 
Carroll, James (2006). House of War: The Pentagon and the Disastrous Rise of American Power. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-18780-5. 
Chomsky, Noam (1967a). "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". The New York Review of Books. 8 (3). Diakses tanggal 2 December 2013. 
Chomsky, Noam (1967b). "An Exchange on 'The Responsibility of Intellectuals'". The New York Review of Books. 8 (7). Diakses tanggal 2 December 2013. 
Coughlin, William (1953). "The Great Mokusatsu Mistake: Was This the Deadliest Error of Our Time?". Harper's Magazine. 206 (1234): 31–40. ISSN 0017-789X. 
Cousins, Norman (1987). The Pathology of Power. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-02378-7. 
Cox, Harvey (1997). "Repentance and Forgiveness: A Christian Perspective". In Amitai Etzioni and David E. Carney, eds., Repentance: A Comparative Perspective (pp. 21–30). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-847-68470-0. 
Craig, Campbell; Logevall, Fredrik (2009). America's Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03553-9. 
Cumings, Bruce (1999). Parallax Visions: Making Sense of American–East Asian Relations at the End of the Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-822-32276-4. 
Davies, Roger J.; Ikeno, Osamu, ed. (2002). The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture. Boston, MA: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-804-83295-3. 
Dower, John W. (1995). "The Bombed: Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese Memory". Diplomatic History. 19 (2). 
——— (1998). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1. 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). The White House Years; Mandate For Change: 1953–1956. New York, NY: Doubleday & Company. 
Falk, Richard (2003). "State Terror versus Humanitarian Law". In Mark Selden and Alvin Y. So, eds., War and State Terrorism: The United States, Japan, and the Asia-Pacific in the Long Twentieth Century (pp. 41–61). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-742-52391-3. 
Frank, Richard B. (1999). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-41424-7. 
Frank, Richard B. (2004). "President Harry S. Truman's Farewell Address and the Atomic Bomb: The High Price of Secrecy". In Richard Stewart Kirkendall, ed., Harry's Farewell: Interpreting and Teaching the Truman Presidency (pp. 105–142). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-826-21552-9. 
Frey, Robert S., ed. (2004). The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-761-82743-6. 
Gaddis, John Lewis (2005). The Cold War. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-713-99912-9. 
Gentile, Gian P. (2000). How Effective is Strategic Bombing?: Lessons Learned from World War II to Kosovo. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-814-73135-2. 
Groves, Leslie (1962). Now it Can be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-306-70738-1. OCLC 537684. 
Gruhl, Werner (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-765-80352-8. 
Grunden, Walter E. (1998). "Hungnam and the Japanese Atomic Bomb: Recent Historiography of a Postwar Myth". Intelligence and National Security. 13 (2): 32–60. doi:10.1080/02684529808432475. 
Harbour, Frances Vryling (1999). Thinking About International Ethics: Moral Theory and Cases from American Foreign Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-813-32847-8. 
Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01693-4. 
Home, R. W.; Low, Morris F. (1993). "Postwar Scientific Intelligence Missions to Japan". Isis. 84 (3): 527–537. JSTOR 235645. 
Kazemek, Francis E. (1994). "'Two Handfuls of Bone and Ash': Teaching Our Children about Hiroshima". Phi Delta Kappan. 75 (7): 531–534. JSTOR 20405161. 
Kolko, Gabriel (1990) [1968]. The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943–1945. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-72757-6. 
Kort, Michael (2006). "Racing the Enemy: A Critical Look". Historically Speaking. 7 (3). 
Leahy, William D. (1950). I was there. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Book Company. 
Lee, Bruce (2001). Marching Orders: The Untold Story Of World War II. New York, NY: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81036-7. 
Levering, Ralph B. (2007). "Book Review: Racing the Enemy by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa". Journal of American History. 94 (1): 329. JSTOR 25094908. 
Lynn, John A. (2008). Battle: A History of Combat and Culture. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-813-33372-4. 
Maddox, Robert James (1995). "The Biggest Decision: Why We Had to Drop the Atomic Bomb". American Heritage. 46 (3). Diakses tanggal 1 June 2012. 
——— (2004) [1995]. Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-826-21562-8. 
Maga, Timothy P. (2001). Judgment at Tokyo: the Japanese War Crimes Trials. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-813-12177-2. 
Marty, Martin E. (1996). Modern American Religion, Volume 3: Under God, Indivisible, 1941–1960. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50898-6. 
Miles, Rufus E. (1985). "Hiroshima: The Strange Myth of Half a Million American Lives Saved". International Security. 10 (2): 121–140. JSTOR 2538830. 
Miscamble, Wilson D. (2011). The Most Controversial Decision: Truman, the Atomic Bombs, and the Defeat of Japan. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51419-4. 
Nassar, Jamal (2009). Globalization and Terrorism: The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-742-55788-8. 
Newman, Robert P. (2004). Enola Gay and the Court of History. New York, NY: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-820-47457-1. 
Newman, Robert P. (2011). Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 978-0-870-13940-6. 
Oppenheimer, J. Robert (1948). "Physics in the contemporary world". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 4 (3): 65–68, 85–86. 
Pape, Robert A. (1993). "Why Japan Surrendered". International Security. 18 (2): 154–201. JSTOR 2539100. 
Rice, Sarah (2005). "Book Notes: The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond by Robert S. Frey, ed". Harvard Human Rights Journal. 18: 289ff. 
Scalia, Joseph M. (2000). Germany's Last Mission to Japan: The Failed Voyage of U-234. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-557-50811-9. 
Selden, Kyoko; Selden, Mark, ed. (1989). The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-873-32556-1. 
Sherwin, Martin (1974). A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-49794-5. 
Sherwin, Martin (2003). A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (edisi ke-3rd). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-804-73957-3. 
Stohl, Michael (1988). "National Interests and State Terrorism in International Affairs". In Michael Stohl, ed., The Politics of Terrorism (pp. 273–294) (edisi ke-3rd). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-824-77814-9. 
Toland, John (2003) [1970]. The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936–1945. New York, NY: Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-812-96858-3. 
Wainstock, Dennis (1996). The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95475-8. 
Walker, J. Samuel (2005). Recent Literature on Truman's Atomic Bomb Decision: A Search for Middle Ground. Diplomatic History. 29. hlm. 311–334. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2005.00476.x. 
——— (1996). "The Decision to Use the Bomb: A Historiographical Update". In Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (pp. 11–37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56206-5. 
Weingartner, James J. (1992). "Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941–1945". Pacific Historical Review. 61 (1): 53–67. JSTOR 3640788. 
Wilkins, Burleigh Taylor (1992). Terrorism and Collective Responsibility. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04152-X. 
Wilson, Ward (2007). "The Winning Weapon? Rethinking Nuclear Weapons in the Light of Hiroshima" (PDF). International Security. 31 (4): 162–179. doi:10.1162/isec.2007.31.4.162. 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Allen, Thomas B. and Polmar, Norman (1995). Code-Name Downfall: The Secret Plan to Invade Japan And Why Truman Dropped the Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80406-9. 
Concludes the bombings were justified.
Weighs whether the bombings were justified or necessary, concludes they were not.
  • Bernstein, Barton J. (Editor) (1976). The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09192-8. 
Weighs whether the bombings were justified or necessary.
"The thing had to be done", but "Circumstances are heavy with misgiving."
Explains the conflicts and debates within the Japanese government from the onset of World War II until surrender. Concludes the bombings were justified.
  • Feis, Herbert (1961). Japan Subdued: The Atomic Bomb and the End of the War in the Pacific. Princeton University Press. 
Concludes that the bombs were not only necessary, but legally and morally acceptable (1966 reprint).
Major work, concludes that the bombs were morally reprehensible, but influential on the surrender and understandable given the circumstances.
Exceedingly Orthodox article, defends the bomb but not a serious academic work.
Philosophical/moral discussion concerning the Allied strategy of area bombing in World War II, including the use of atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Concludes that the atomic bombings were unnecessary. Challenges the view that that the atomic bombings were necessary to end the Pacific War and save lives.
Argues the bombs were not the deciding factor in ending the war. The Russian entrance into the Pacific war was the primary cause for Japan's surrender.
Here he sharpens his earlier view that the Russian entrance into the Pacific war was the primary cause for Japan's surrender.
  • Maddox, Robert James (1995). Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1562-9. 
Author is a diplomatic historian who favors Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs.
  • Newman, Robert P. (1995). Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-403-5. 
An analysis critical of postwar opposition to the atom bombings.
  • Nobile, Philip (Editor) (1995). Judgement at the Smithsonian. Marlowe and Company. ISBN 1-56924-841-9. 
Covers the controversy over the content of the 1995 Smithsonian Institution exhibition associated with the display of the Enola Gay; includes complete text of the planned (and canceled) exhibition.
  • Takaki, Ronald (1995). Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-83124-7. 

Pranala luarSunting