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Umat Ayyavazhi merayakan Kodiyettru Thirunal di Swamithope pathi.

Ayyavazhi (bahasa Tamil: அய்யாவழி dan bahasa Malayalam: അയ്യാവഴി Ayyāvaḻi[1] [əjːaːvəɻi] ( simak) "Jalan Sang Bapa") adalah suatu agama dari India,[2] tepatnya India Selatan.[3] Ia disebut sebagai agama monistis tersendiri[4] oleh sejumlah media massa,[5][6][7] dokumen pemerintah,[8][9] dan kajian ilmiah.[10][11][12][13] Tetapi, dalam sensus India, sebagian besar penganutnya mengaku sebagai umat Hindu. Maka dari itu, Ayyavazhi juga dapat dianggap sebagai salah satu sekte dalam agama Hindu.[14][15][16]

Ayyavazhi berpusat pada kehidupan dan khotbah Ayya Vaikundar; kepercayaan dan filsafatnya berdasarkan kepada kitab suci Akilathirattu Ammanai dan Arul Nool. Menurut kitab tersebut, Vaikundar adalah Purna-awatara dari Narayana. Ayyavazhi mengandung sejumlah kepercayaan yang sama dengan Hinduisme dalam segi mitologi dan praktik, namun berbeda dalam hal konsep kebaikan dan kejahatan, serta dharma.[17] Ayyavazhi diklasifikasikan sebagai agama darma karena landasan utamanya adalah darma.[18]

Mulanya Ayyavazhi memperoleh perhatian publik pada abad ke-19 sebagai suatu sekte Hinduisme.[19] Kegiatan Vaikundar serta pertambahan para pengikutnya mengakibatnya reformasi dan revolusi di kalangan masyarakat Travancore[20] dan Tamil,[21] mendobrak sistem sosial feodal di India Selatan.[22] Ia juga memicu sejumlah gerakan reformatif seperti Narayana Guru, dan Ramalinga Swamigal, dan lain-lain.

Meskipun penganut Ayyavazhi tersebar ke seluruh India,[23][24] mereka paling banyak ditemui di India Selatan,[25] khususnya di daerah Tamil Nadu[26] dan Kerala.[27] Jumlah penganutnya diperkirakan sebanyak 8 juta[28] hingga 10 juta,[29] walau jumlah pastinya tidak diketahui, sebab banyak umat Ayyavazhi mengaku sebagai orang Hindu pada waktu disensus.[30][31]

Catatan kakiSunting

  1. ^ The 'zhi' (ழி) portion of the word Ayyavazhi is a retroflex, and it is correctly transliterated according to the National Library at Kolkata romanization as Ayyāvaḻi.
  2. ^ Arisundara Mani, Akilathirattu Ammanai Parayana Urai p. 4
  3. ^ Tha. Krishna Nathan, Ayyaa vaikuNdarin vaazvum sinthanaiyum, p. 62: "{{lang-taஅவர் (வைகுண்டர்) மாற்றுப் பிறப்பு பெற்ற நாளே அய்யாவழி சமய மரபு தோற்றம் பெற்ற நாள்(கி.பி.1833) எனக் கூறலாம்.}}" (The day at which Vaikundar is given rebirth could be considered as the date of origin of the Ayyavazhi religion.)
  4. ^ N. Vivekanandan, Akilathirattu Ammanai moolamum Uraiyum, Volume 2, p. 97
  5. ^ The following morning and evening dailies refer to Ayyavazhi as a religion:
    • Malai Malar (leading evening Tamil daily), Nagercoil Edition, 4 March 2007, p. 5, "சுவாமி ஊர்வலத்தை அய்யாவழி பக்தர்கள் சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார்..." (this report calls Ayyavazhi ('அய்யாவழி சமயம்') "a separate religion");
    • Dinakaran (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 1 March 2007, p. 3: "அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் அடிக்கல் நாட்டினார்"("Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion laid foundation stone for the ...");
    • Dinakaran (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 14 February 2011, p. 2: "...தலைமை பதிக்கு வந்த ரவிசங்கர்ஜியை அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் வரவேற்றார்."("Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion welcomed Sri Sri Ravi Shankar who arrived here in Swamithope pathi...");
    • Dina Thanthi, Nagercoil Edition, 2/3/2007, p. 5. "மாநாட்டுக்கு அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் தலைமை தாங்குகிறார்." Translation – "The religious conference is led by Bala Prajapathi Adikalar, the head of Ayyavazhi religion." This news from a leading news paper in India, on reporting the 175th Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, calls Ayyavazhi a religion, and Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion;
    • Tamil Murasu (4/3/2006), p. 3:"இதையொட்டி குமரி மாவட்டம் சாமி தோப்பில் 'அய்யா வழி சமய' மாநாடு (the conference of 'Ayyavazhi religion') உள்பட..."
  6. ^ "Nallakannu Watches Ayyavazhi" (www.kollywoodtoday.com). " They follow a religion based on his principles, which is called Ayyavazhi.". Diakses tanggal 9 June 2008. 
  7. ^ "Ayyavazhi followers visit Swamithoppu" (The Hindu). " By the middle of nineteenth century, Ayyavazhi was recognised as an independent religion..." (Chennai, India). 5 March 2010. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 10 March 2010. Diakses tanggal 5 March 2010. 
  8. ^ "Bala Prajapathi Adikalar Manivizha" (www.tn.gov.in). "The Maniviza (fest) for Bala Prajapathi Adikalar, the head of Ayyavazhi religion ..."(Tamil:Press release No-45/13-01-2008.). Diakses tanggal 22 March 2009. [pranala nonaktif]
  9. ^ "Sri Vaikunda Swamigal" (Tamilnadu Text book Corporation). "By the midnineteenth century, Ayyavazhi came to be recognized as a separate religion and spread in the regions of South Travancore and South Tirunelveli.". Diakses tanggal 22 May 2010. 
  10. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, pp. 120–121. '"it may be concluded that, AV emerged as a 'new and singular' religious phenomenon in that context"
  11. ^ The Land of Charity (Samuel Mateer). "this singular people display considerable zeal in the defence and propagation" (This author's view is negative over the 'belief of Ayyavazhi', but this book is cited here only to reflect the then structure of Ayyavazhi on the social and religious ground as viewed by an outsider.). Diakses tanggal 23 January 2008. 
  12. ^ Graham Harvey and Robert J. Wallis, (2007), Historical Dictionary of Shamanism, ISBN 0-8108-5798-7, Scarecrow Press, pp. 101
  13. ^ M.C. Raj (2001), Dalitology: The Book of the Dalit People, Ambedkar Resource Centre, Tumkūr, India, p. 422, "The Shanans also started a non-Brahminic religion called Ayya Vazhi." ISBN 81-87367-04-0
  14. ^ "Tamil Nadu – Nagercoil" (Gold ornaments stolen from temple). "... which was the headquarters of Ayya Vazhi sect, had been decorated with jewels in view of the ongoing festival ...". Diakses tanggal 15 April 2009. 
  15. ^ Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 98
  16. ^ "Madurai News Letter" (PDF). "Fr. Maria Jeyaraj arranged an inter-faith dialogue at Samithoppu, Kanyakumari, on 'Akila Thirattu Ammanai' and 'Arul Nool', the scriptures of 'Ayya Vazhi', an 'important sect of Hinduism'. The present head of Ayya Vazhi, Sri Bala Prajapathi Adigalar, guided the meeting.". Diarsipkan dari versi asli (Thozhamai Illam, Kanyakumari) tanggal 29 November 2007. Diakses tanggal 23 January 2008. 
  17. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 111–113,
  18. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 160–161.
  19. ^ Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 98.
  20. ^ Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 63, "The religious reform of Sri Vaikunda Swamigal left an everlasting influence on South Travancorean society."
  21. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 90–91.
  22. ^ Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 86.
  23. ^ Dina Malar(Leading Tamil News paper), Nagercoil Edition, 4/3/2005 p. 12: "எனேவ இன்று அய்யா வைகுண்டசாமி வழிபாட்டு ஆலயங்கள் இந்தியா முழுவதும் வேராயிரம் பெற்ற விழுதுகளாய் படந்து ஆறாயிரத்துக்கு மேல் தோன்றி வளர்ந்து வருகிறது" Translated to "So today these worship centers of Vaikunda Sami is spread across India and growing with more than 6000 of them"
  24. ^ C. Poulose, Advaita Philosophy of Brahmasri Chattampi Swamikal, p. 24, "To propagate his teachings and ideas he opened upon seven Pathis and seven Tangs (The Primary Nizhal Thangals) in Travancore, hundreds of small pagodas (Nizhal Thangals) throughout India." Accrediting the Worship centers of Ayyavazhi across India and so the Ayyavazhi followers.
  25. ^ Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 100, '"At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  26. ^ Dina Thanthi, (Tamil Daily) Nagercoil Edition, 4 March 2007, p. 23: "The Ayyavazhi followers are highly populated in the districts of Chennai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari."
  27. ^ Tha. Krishna Nathan, Ayya Vaikundarin Vazhvum Sinthanaiyum, Chapter 4, p. 83: "இதற்கு ஆதாரமாக அய்யா வைகுண்டரைத் தெய்வமாக ஏற்றுக்கொண்ட சுமார் 8000 – க்கும் மேற்பட்ட அய்யாவழிப் பதிகள் தமிழ்நாடு மற்றும் கேரளப்பகுதிகளில் இயங்குவதைக் கூறலாம்." (This citation was included here from Tamil Wikipedia article)
  28. ^ Dinakaran, Nagercoil edition, p. 15, 25 February 2007.
  29. ^ 31st Indian Social Science Congress, A note on People's Struggles and Movements for Equitable Society, Plenary IV: People's Struggles and Movements For Gender/ Racial/ Caste-Discrimination-free Equitable Society, p. 47.
  30. ^ "Indian Census 2001 – Population by religious communities" (Other Religious Communities). 256, Tamil Nadu. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 19 January 2008. Diakses tanggal 23 January 2008. 
  31. ^ "Religion" (Religion In India). Paragraph 6. Diakses tanggal 7 November 2009.