- ^ Alan John Day, Roger East, Richard Thomas (2002). A Political and Economic Dictionary of Eastern Europe. Psychology Press. hlm. 454. ISBN 1857430638.
Pontic Greeks An ethnic Greek minority found in Georgia and originally concentrated in the breakaway republic of Abkhazia. The Pontic Greeks are ultimately descended from Greek colonists of the Caucasus region (who named the Black Sea the Pontic Sea)
- ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert; Jacobs, Steven L. (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 337. ISBN 0313346429.
Pontic Greeks, Genocide of. The Pontic (sometimes Pontian) Greek genocide is the term applied to the massacres and deportations perpetuated against ethnic Greeks living in the Ottoman Empire at the hands of the Young Turk government between 1914 and 1923. The name of this people derives from the Greek word pontus, meaning “sea coast,” and refers to the Greek population that lived on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea, that is, in northern Turkey, for three millennia.
- ^ Wood, Michael (2005). In Search of Myths & Heroes: Exploring Four Epic Legends of the World. University of California Press. hlm. 109. ISBN 0520247248.
THE PONTIC GREEKS In the valleys running down to the Black Sea shore around Trebizond, the Greek presence lasted from 700 BC until our own time. Only after the catastrophe of 1922, when the Greeks were expelled from Turkey, did most of them migrate to Greece, or into Georgia where many had started to go before the First World War when the first signs of burning were in the air. The Turks had entered central Anatolia (the Greek word for ‘the east’) in the eleventh century, and by 1400 it was entirely in their hands, though the jewel in the crown, Constantinople itself, wasn’t taken till 1453. By then the Greek-speaking Christian population was in a minority, and even their church services were conducted partly in Greek, partly in Turkish. In Pontus, on the Black Sea coast, it was a different story. Here the Greeks were a very strong presence right up into modern times. Although they had been conquered in 1486, they were still the majority in the seventeenth century and many converted to Islam still spoke Greek. Even in the late twentieth century the authorities in Trebizond had to use interpreters to work with the Muslim Pontic-Greek speakers in the law courts, as the language was still spoken as their mother tongue. This region had a thriving oral culture into the last century and a thriving oral culture into the last century and a whole genre of ballads comes down from the Ancient Greeks…
- Michel Bruneau (ed.), Grecs pontiques: Diaspora, identité, territoires, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Cnrs) Éditions, Paris, 1998 (recension and presentation)
- Nikos Doukas, The Pontian muslims at the target of Turkey
- About Pontic Culture of Anatolia
- The official web site of the Pontian Federation of Greece
- Web site of everything Pontian
- World wide Pontian Forum
- Pontian Federation of Australia
- Information and old photos of Pontic Greek villages and people in the Caucasus
- Facebook page for old photos of Pontic Greek villages and people in the Caucasus
- Pontian Association in Stuttgart, Germany
- Pontian Association in South Russia
- Pontian web site catalogue
- Pontian Association in Frankfurt, Germany / Verein der Griechen aus Pontos in Frankfurt
- Pontian International site
- Internet Radio "Akrites tou Pontou"
- Pontian folk music
- Tsiambasin, traditional Pontian song
- Trebizond Greek: A language without a tongue
- All about Pontian culture
- Website with map showing colonization of the Black Sea by Greek
- The Incredible Odyssey of the Black Sea Greeks
- Greek Penetration of the Black Sea
- Matthaios Tsahouridis, A great Pontian Lyra player