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Yerusalem Barat

Ibu kota de facto Israel

Templat:Pp-30-500

Koordinat: 31°46′55″N 35°13′10″E / 31.78194°N 35.21944°E / 31.78194; 35.21944

Wilayah kota Yerusalem antara tahun 1948 ― 1967

Yerusalem Barat adalah bagian Yerusalem yang tetap berada di bawah kendali Israel setelah Perang Arab-Israel 1948, yang garis gencatan senjatanya membatasi perbatasan dengan seluruh kota, yang kemudian di bawah kendali Yordania.[1] Sejumlah negara barat seperti Inggris mengakui secara de facto otoritas Israel, tetapi menahan pengakuan de jure.[2][3] Klaim kedaulatan Israel atas Yerusalem Barat lebih diterima secara luas daripada klaimnya atas Yerusalem Timur.[4]

sejarahSunting

perang 1948Sunting

Sebelum perang Palestina 1948, wilayah Yerusalem Barat memiliki salah satu komunitas Arab terkaya, berjumlah sekitar 28.000 orang, di wilayah tersebut.  Pada akhir permusuhan, hanya sekitar 750 non-Yahudi yang tersisa di sektor Arab di daerah itu, dan mereka, sebagian besar, adalah orang-orang Yunani yang diizinkan tinggal di rumah mereka di koloni Yunani.[5] Setelah perang, Yerusalem dibagi menjadi dua bagian: bagian barat, dari mana diperkirakan sekitar 30.000 orang Arab telah melarikan diri atau diusir, berada di bawah kekuasaan Israel, sementara Yerusalem Timur berada di bawah kekuasaan Yordania[1][6][butuh rujukan] dan dihuni terutama oleh Muslim dan Kristen Palestina.  Komunitas Yahudi sekitar 1.500 diusir dari Kota Tua.[butuh rujukan]

Setelah penjarahan yang meluas, lembaga-lembaga Israel berhasil mengumpulkan sekitar 30.000 buku, kebanyakan dalam bahasa Arab, berurusan dengan hukum Islam, tafsir Al-Qur'an dan terjemahan sastra Eropa, bersama dengan ribuan karya dari kepemilikan gereja dan sekolah.  Banyak yang diambil dari rumah penulis dan cendekiawan Palestina di Qatamon, Bak'a dan Musrara.[7]

Division in 1949Sunting

 
Palmach soldiers attack Arab positions at St Symeon ("San Simon") Monastery in Katamon, Jerusalem, April 1948 (battle reconstruction)

The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine made of Jerusalem and its area an international city.[8]

Arabs living in such western Jerusalem neighbourhoods as Katamon or Malha were forced to leave; the same fate befell Jews in the eastern areas, including the Old City of Jerusalem and Silwan. Almost 33% of the land in West Jerusalem in the pre-mandate period had been owned by Arabs. The Knesset (Israeli Parliament) passed laws to transfer this Arab land to Israeli Jewish organizations.[9]

The only eastern area of the city that remained in Israeli hands throughout the 19 years of Jordanian rule was Mount Scopus, where the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is located, which formed an enclave during that period and therefore is not considered part of East Jerusalem.[butuh rujukan]

Capital of IsraelSunting

Israel established West Jerusalem as its capital in 1950.[2] The Israeli government needed to invest heavily to create employment, building new government offices, a new university, the Great Synagogue and the Knesset building.[10] West Jerusalem became covered by the Law and Administrative Ordinance of 1948, subjecting West Jerusalem to Israeli jurisdiction. United States President Donald Trump's administration announced recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital on December 6, 2017.[11] On December 15, 2018, Australia officially recognized West Jerusalem as Israel's capital.[12][13]

ReunificationSunting

During the Six-Day War in June 1967, Israel captured the eastern side of the city[14] and the whole West Bank. Over the following years, their control remains tenuous, the international community refusing to recognise their authority and the Israelis themselves not feeling secure.[14]

In 1980, the Israeli government annexed East Jerusalem and reunified the city but the international community disputed this.[1] The population of Jerusalem has largely remained segregated along the city's historical east/west division.[15] The larger city contains two populations that are "almost completely economically and politically segregated... each interacting with its separate central business district", supporting analysis that the city has retained a duocentric, as opposed to the traditional monocentric, structure.[15]

Mayors of West JerusalemSunting

lihat pulaSunting

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KutipanSunting

  1. ^ a b c "Key Maps". Jerusalem: Before 1967 and now. BBC News. Diakses tanggal 26 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Dumper, Michael (1997). The politics of Jerusalem since 1967. Columbia University Press. hlm. 35–36. ISBN 978-0231106405. 
  3. ^ Moshe Hirsch; Deborah Housen-Couriel; Ruth Lapidot (28 June 1995). Whither Jerusalem?: Proposals and Positions Concerning the Future of Jerusalem. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. hlm. 15. ISBN 978-90-411-0077-1. What, then, is Israel's status in west Jerusalem? Two main answers have been adduced: (a) Israel has sovereignty in this area; and (b) sovereignty lies with the Palestinian people or is suspended. 
  4. ^ Bisharat, George (23 December 2010). "Maximizing Rights". Dalam Susan M. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. hlm. 311. ISBN 978-1-136-85098-1. As we have noted previously the international legal status of Jerusalem is contested and Israel’s designation of it as its capital has not been recognized by the international community. However its claims of sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect to West Jerusalem than with respect to East Jerusalem. 
  5. ^ Amit 2011.
  6. ^ Dumper & 1997 pp30-21.
  7. ^ Amit 2011, hlm. 7,9.
  8. ^ Greenway, H.D.S. (23 July 1980). "Explainer; The 3000 years of battling over Jerusalem". Boston Globe. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  9. ^ Dumper 1997, hlm. 35-36.
  10. ^ Dumper, Michael (1997). The politics of Jerusalem since 1967. Columbia University Press. hlm. 20–21. ISBN 978-0231106405. 
  11. ^ Landler, Mark (2017-12-06). "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Diakses tanggal 2017-12-11. 
  12. ^ Australia recognizes west Jerusalem as the capital of Israel
  13. ^ ‘We expected more’: Israelis & Palestinians upset by Australia’s recognition of W. Jerusalem only
  14. ^ a b Dumper, Michael (1997). The politics of Jerusalem since 1967. Columbia University Press. hlm. 22. ISBN 978-0231106405. 
  15. ^ a b Alperovich, Gershon; Joseph Deutsch (April 1996). "Urban structure with two coexisting and almost completely segregated populations: The case of East and West Jerusalem". Regional Science and Urban Economics. 26 (2): 171–187. doi:10.1016/0166-0462(95)02124-8. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  16. ^ Archive of Jerusalem's 1949 wartime governor for sale in U.S, Haaretz
  17. ^ Summary record of a meeting between the committee on Jerusalem and Mr. Daniel Auster, Mayor of Jerusalem (Jewish sector)
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Former Mayors of Jerusalem 1948–2008". City of Jerusalem website. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  19. ^ "Shlomo Zalman Shragai, 96, a former mayor of Jerusalem and..." Baltimore Sun. 4 September 1995. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  20. ^ Eisenberg, Ronald L. (2006). The Streets of Jerusalem: Who, What, Why. Devora Publishing Company. hlm. 217. ISBN 978-1-932687-54-5. 
  21. ^ "Biography: Gershon Agron". Jewish Virtual Library. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  22. ^ "Mordechai Ish-Shalom, Jerusalem Ex-Mayor, 90". New York Times. 23 February 1991. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2013. 
  23. ^ Wilson, Scott (January 2, 2007). "Longtime Mayor of Jerusalem Dies at 95". The Washington Post. hlm. 2. Diakses tanggal January 2, 2007. 
  24. ^ Senyor, Eli (15 April 2010). "Olmert cited as 'senior official' in Holyland affair". Ynetnews.com. Diakses tanggal 2012-02-14. 
  25. ^ Steven Erlanger (July 16, 2005). "An Ultra-Orthodox Mayor in an Unorthodox City". The New York Times. 
  26. ^ "Secularist 'wins Jerusalem vote'". BBC News. 2008-11-11. 

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