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Thermococcus
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: Euryarchaeota
Filum: Euryarchaeota
Kelas: Thermococci
Ordo: Thermococcales
Famili: Thermococcaceae
Genus: Thermococcus
Spesies
Sinonim
  • Thermococcus Zillig 1983

Dalam taksonomi, Thermococcus adalah genus termofili ekstrem dalam famili Thermococcaceae.[1]
Anggota dari genus Thermococcus semua Archaea, memiliki karakteristik thermophillic-hyperthermophillic.[2] Mikroorganisme ini biasanya berbentuk tidak teratur spesies coccoid, mulai dari ukuran 0,6-2,0 μm dengan diameter.[3] Beberapa spesies Thermococcus tidak dapat bergerak, dan beberapa spesies memiliki motilitas, menggunakan flagela sebagai sumber utama gerakan.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Flagela ini biasanya ada pada tiang spesifik organisme.[13] Gerakan ini telah terlihat pada suhu kamar atau pada suhu tinggi, tergantung pada organisme tertentu.[14] Pada beberapa spesies, mikroorganisme ini dapat agregat dan membentuk plak putih-abu-abu,[13] sementara semua organisme ini tinggal di suhu dari 70-<100oC,[2][3][4][5][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] baik di hadapan perokok hitam (ventilasi hidrotermal), atau mata air tawar,[22] antara garam (NaCl) konsentrasi dari 1% -3%.[19] Spesies dalam genus ini secara ketat anaerob,[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] dan sebagian besar barophiles serta thermophiles,[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] hidup di kedalaman antara 200 <1.000 ft.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Organisme ini berkembang pada tingkat pH 5,6-7,9.[23] Anggota dari genus ini telah ditemukan di banyak sistem hidrotermal ventilasi di dunia, termasuk dari laut Jepang,[24] untuk lepas pantai California.[25] Anehnya garam (NaCl) bukan merupakan substrat diperlukan untuk organisme ini,[26][27] sebagai salah satu studi menunjukkan anggota Thermococcus hidup dalam sistem air panas tawar di Selandia Baru,[22] namun mereka memang membutuhkan konsentrasi rendah lithium ion untuk pertumbuhan.[28] Anggota Thermococcus digambarkan sebagai heterotrofik, chemotrophic[2][3][4][5] dan sulfanogen organotrophic;[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] memanfaatkan unsur sulfur (So) dan sumber karbon termasuk asam amino, karbohidrat, dan asam organik seperti piruvat.[29]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ See the NCBI webpage on Thermococcus. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Diakses tanggal 2007-03-19. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Amenabar, M. J., et al. (2013). "Archaeal diversity from hydrothermal systems of Deception Island, Antarctica." Polar Biology 36(3): 373-380.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Francesco Canganella, W. J. J., Agata Gambacorta, and Garabed Antranikian (1998). "Thermococcus guaymasensis sp. nov. and Thermococcus aggregans sp. nov., two novel thermophilic archaea isolated from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site." International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 48(1): 6.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Schut, G. J., et al. (2013). "The modular respiratory complexes involved in hydrogen and sulfur metabolism by heterotrophic hyperthermophilic archaea and their evolutionary implications."Fems Microbiology Reviews 37(2): 182-203.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Yuusuke Tokooji, T. S., Shinsuke Fujiwara, Tadayuki Imanaka and Haruyuki Atomi (2013). "Genetic Examination of Initial Amino Acid Oxidation and Glutamate Catabolism in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis." Journal of Bacteriology: 10.
  6. ^ a b c d Bezsudnova, E. Y., et al. (2012). "Structural insight into the molecular basis of polyextremophilicity of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus." Biochimie 94(12): 2628-2638.
  7. ^ a b c d e Cho, S. S., et al. (2012). "Characterization and PCR application of a new high-fidelity DNA polymerase from Thermococcus waiotapuensis." Enzyme and Microbial Technology 51(6-7): 334-341.
  8. ^ a b c d e Atomi, H., et al. (2013). "CoA biosynthesis in archaea." Biochemical Society Transactions 41: 427-431.
  9. ^ a b c d Lee, J., et al. (2012). "Hydrogen production from C1 compounds by a novel marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 37(15): 11113-11121.
  10. ^ a b c d Aono, R., et al. (2012). "Enzymatic Characterization of AMP Phosphorylase and Ribose-1,5-Bisphosphate Isomerase Functioning in an Archaeal AMP Metabolic Pathway." Journal of Bacteriology 194(24): 6847-6855.
  11. ^ a b c d e Jaime Andres Rivas-Pardo, A. H.-M., Victor Castro-Fernandez, Francisco J. Fernandez, M. Cristina Vega, and Victoria Guixe (2013). "Crystal Structure, SAXS and Kinetic Mechanism of Hyperthermophilic ADP-Depended Glucokinase from Thermococcus litoralis Reveal a Conserved Mechanism for Catalysis " PLoS ONE: 12.
  12. ^ a b c d e Rogatykh, S. V., et al. (2013). "Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Composition of Cultivated Acidophilic Microorganisms by Real-Time PCR and Clone Library Analysis." Microbiology 82(2): 210-214.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Tae-Yang Jung, Y.-S. K., Byoung-Ha Oh, and Euijeon Woo (2012). "Identification of a novel ligand binding site in phosphoserine phosphatase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus." Wiley Periodicals: 11.
  14. ^ a b c d e Tagashira, K., et al. (2013). "Genetic studies on the virus-like regions in the genome of hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakarensis." Extremophiles 17(1): 153-160.
  15. ^ a b c d Gorlas, A. and C. Geslin (2013). "A simple procedure to determine the infectivity and host range of viruses infecting anaerobic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms." Extremophiles 17(2): 349-355.
  16. ^ a b c d Krupovic, M., et al. (2013). "Insights into Dynamics of Mobile Genetic Elements in Hyperthermophilic Environments from Five New Thermococcus Plasmids." PLoS ONE 8(1).
  17. ^ a b c d Adrian Hetzer, H. W. M., Ian R. McDonald, Christopher J. Daughney (2007). "Microbial life in Champagne Pool, a geothermal spring in Waiotapu, New Zealand." Extremophiles 11:10.
  18. ^ a b c d Tomohiro Kato, X. L., Hiroyuki Asanuma (2012). "Model of Elongation of Short DNA Sequence by Thermophilic DNA Polymerase under Isothermal Conditions." Biochemistry 51: 8.
  19. ^ a b c d e Kim, B. K., et al. (2012). "Genome Sequence of an Oligohaline Hyperthermophilic Archaeon, Thermococcus zilligii AN1, Isolated from a Terrestrial Geothermal Freshwater Spring." Journal of Bacteriology 194(14): 3765-3766.
  20. ^ a b c d Annmarie Neumer, H. W. J., Shimshon Belkin, and Karl O. Stetter (1990). "Thermococcus litoralis sp. nov.: A new species of extremely thermophilic marine archaebacteria." Arch Microbiology 153(1): 3.
  21. ^ a b c d James F. Holden, K. T., Melanie Summit, Sheryl Bolton, Jamie Zyskowski, John A. Baross (2000). "Diversity among three novel groups of hyperthermophilic deep-sea Thermococcus species from three sites in the northeastern Pacific Ocean." FEMS Microbiology Ecology 36: 10.
  22. ^ a b Elisabeth Antoine, J. G., J. R. Meunier, F. Lesongeur, G. Barbier (1995). "Isolation and Characterization of Extremely Thermophilic Archaebacteria Related to the Genus Thermococcus from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Guaymas Basin." Current Microbiology 31: 7.
  23. ^ Kazuo Tori, S. I., Shinichi Kiyonari, Saki Tahara, Yoshizumi Ishino (2013). "A Novel Single-Strand Specific 3'-5' Exonuclease Found in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus." PLoS ONE 8: 9.
  24. ^ Cui, Z. C., et al. (2012). "High level expression and characterization of a thermostable lysophospholipase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1." Extremophiles 16(4): 619-625.
  25. ^ Ryo Uehara, S.-i. T., Kazufumi Takano, Yuichi Koga, Shigenori Kanaya (2012). "Requirement of insertion sequence IS1 for thermal adaptation of Pro-Tk-subtilisin from hyperthermophilic archaeon." Extremophiles 16: 11.
  26. ^ Cubonova, L., et al. (2012). "An Archaeal Histone Is Required for Transformation of Thermococcus kodakarensis." Journal of Bacteriology 194(24): 6864-6874.
  27. ^ Anne Postec, F. L., Patricia Pignet, Bernard Ollivier, Joel Querellou, Anne Godfroy (2007). "Continuous enrichment cultures: insights into prokaryotic diversity and metabolic interactions in deep-sea vent chimneys." Extremophiles 11: 10.
  28. ^ Jed O. Eberly, R. L. E. (2008). "Thermotolerant Hydrogenases: Biological Diversity, Properties, and Biotechnological Applications." Critical Reviews in Microbiology 34: 14.
  29. ^ Ozawa, Y., et al. (2012). "Indolepyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase: An oxygen-sensitive iron-sulfur enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus profundus." Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 114(1): 23-27.

Bacaan lebih lanjutSunting

Jurnal ilmiahSunting

  • Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (2005). "The nomenclatural types of the orders Acholeplasmatales, Halanaerobiales, Halobacteriales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales, Planctomycetales, Prochlorales, Sulfolobales, Thermococcales, Thermoproteales and Verrucomicrobiales are the genera Acholeplasma, Halanaerobium, Halobacterium, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Planctomyces, Prochloron, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Thermoproteus and Verrucomicrobium, respectively. Opinion 79". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 1): 517–518. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63548-0. PMID 15653928. 
  • Mora, Maximilian; Bellack, Annett; Ugele, Matthias; Hopf, Johann; Wirth, Reinhard (August 2014). "The Temperature Gradient-Forming Device, an Accessory Unit for Normal Light Microscopes To Study the Biology of Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (15): 4764. doi:10.1128/AEM.00984-14. 
  • Zillig W; Holz I; Klenk HP; Trent J; Wunderl S; Janekovic D; et al. (1987). "Pyrococcus woesei, sp. nov., an ultra-thermophilic marine Archaebacterium, representing a novel order, Thermococcales". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 9: 62–70. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(87)80057-7. 
  • Zillig W; Holz L; Janekovic D; Schafer W; Reiter WD (1983). "The archaebacterium Thermococcus celer represents a novel genus within the thermophilic branch of the archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4: 88–94. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(83)80036-8. 

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