Sylvester Graham

Sylvester Graham (5 Juli 1794 – 11 September 1851) adalah seorang pendeta Presbiterian Amerika Serikat dan reformer gaya makan yang dikenal karena mendorong vegetarianisme, gerakan pengekangan diri dan penyantapan roti gandum utuh. Kotbahnya menginspirasi produk-produk gandum graham, roti graham dan kraker graham.[1]:29[2] Graham disebut "Bapak Vegetarianisme" di Amerika.[1]:15[3]

Sylvester Graham
Sylvester Graham LCCN99406591.jpg
Lahir5 Juli 1794
Connecticut
Meninggal11 September 1851
Northampton, Massachusetts
PekerjaanPendeta Presbiterian, reformer gaya makan

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b Iacobbo, Karen; Iacobbo, Michael (2004). Vegetarian America : a history . Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275975197. 
  2. ^ Tompkins, K. W. (2009). "Sylvester Graham's Imperial Dietetics". Gastronomica. 9 (1): 50–60. doi:10.1525/gfc.2009.9.1.50. JSTOR 10.1525/gfc.2009.9.1.50. 
  3. ^ Misiroglu, Gina. (2008). American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History. Routledge. p. 737. ISBN 978-0-7656-8060-0

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Smith, Andrew F. Ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and drink in America. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, (2004).
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Graham, Sylvester". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (edisi ke-11). Cambridge University Press. hlm. 318. 
  • Burrows, Edwin G. and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, (1999).
  • "Recent Deaths"; New York Daily Times; September 18, 1851; page 2. (Accessed from The New York Times (1851–2003), ProQuest Historical Newspapers, September 19, 2006)
  • Nissenbaum, Stephen, Sex, Diet, and Debility in Jacksonian America: Sylvester Graham and Health Reform. Praeger, (1980).
  • Sokolow, Jayme A. Eros and Modernization: Sylvester Graham, Health Reform, and the Origins of Victorian Sexuality in America. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, (1983).

Pranala luarSunting