Subhas Chandra Bose
- Artikel ini bukanlah mengenai N.S.Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose ( listen (bantuan·info); 23 Januari 1897 – 18 Agustus 1945 (umur 48)) adalah seorang nasionalis India yang berupaya pada Perang Dunia II untuk membebaskan India dari kekuasaan Britania dengan bantuan Jerman Nazi dan Jepang.
|Subhas Chandra Bose|
Subhas Chandra Bose
|Lahir||23 Januari 1897|
Cuttack, Divisi Orissa, Provinsi Bengal, India Britania
|Meninggal||18 Agustus 1945|
Taipei (Taihoku), Taiwan Jepang
|Almamater||Universitas Calcutta Universitas Cambridge|
|Dikenal atas||Figur gerakan kemerdekaan India|
|Gelar||Presiden Kongres Nasional India (1938) |
Kepala Negara, Perdana Menteri, Menteri Perang dan Urusan Luar Negeri Pemerintahan Provisional India Merdeka yang berbasis di Kepulauan Andaman dan Nicobar yang diduduki Jepang (1943–1945)
|Partai politik||Kongres Nasional India 1921–1940,|
Faksi Blok Depan pada Kongres Nasional India, 1939–1940
|Suami/istri||atau rekan, Emilie Schenkl |
(secara rahasia menikah tanpa upacara atau saksi pada 1937, tidak dipublikasikan oleh Bose.)
|Anak||Anita Bose Pfaff|
Kehidupan awal: 1897–1921Sunting
Subhas Chandra Bose lahir pada 23 Januari 1897 (pada pukul 12.10 pm) di Cuttack, Divisi Orissa, Provinsi Bengal, dari pasangan Prabhavati Devi dan Janakinath Bose, seorang advokat. Ia adalah anak kesembilan dari empat belas bersaudara. Ia dimasukkan ke Sekolah Eropa Protestan seperti saudara dan saudarinya yang lain pada Januari 1902.
- ^ a b c Bayly & Harper 2007, hlm. 2: "If all else failed (Bose) wanted to become a prisoner of the Soviets: 'They are the only ones who will resist the British. My fate is with them. But as the Japanese plane took off from Taipei airport its engines faltered and then failed. Bose was badly burned in the crash. According to several witnesses, he died on 18 August in a Japanese military hospital, talking to the very last of India's freedom. British and Indian commissions later established convincingly that Bose had died in Taiwan. These were legendary and apocalyptic times, however. Having witnessed the first Indian leader to fight against the British since the great mutiny of 1857, many in both Southeast Asia and India refused to accept the loss of their hero. Rumours that Bose had survived and was waiting to come out of hiding and begin the final struggle for independence were rampant by the end of 1945." Kesalahan pengutipan: Tanda
<ref>tidak sah; nama "FOOTNOTEBaylyHarper20072" didefinisikan berulang dengan isi berbeda Kesalahan pengutipan: Tanda
<ref>tidak sah; nama "FOOTNOTEBaylyHarper20072" didefinisikan berulang dengan isi berbeda
- ^ Gordon 1990, hlm. 344–345: Kutipan: "Although we must take Emilie Schenkl at her word (about her secret marriage to Bose in 1937), there are a few nagging doubts about an actual marriage ceremony because there is no document that I have seen and no testimony by any other person. ... Other biographers have written that Bose and Miss Schenkl were married in 1942, while Krishna Bose, implying 1941, leaves the date ambiguous. The strangest and most confusing testimony comes from A. C. N. Nambiar, who was with the couple in Badgastein briefly in 1937, and was with them in Berlin during the war as second-in-command to Bose. In an answer to my question about the marriage, he wrote to me in 1978: 'I cannot state anything definite about the marriage of Bose referred to by you, since I came to know of it only a good while after the end of the last world war ... I can imagine the marriage having been a very informal one ... So what are we left with? ... We know they had a close passionate relationship and that they had a child, Anita, born November 29, 1942, in Vienna. ... And we have Emilie Schenkl's testimony that they were married secretly in 1937. Whatever the precise dates, the most important thing is the relationship."
- ^ Hayes 2011, hlm. 15.
- ^ Hayes 2011, hlm. 165: Kutipan: "The most troubling aspect of Bose's presence in Nazi Germany is not military or political but rather ethical. His alliance with the most genocidal regime in history poses serious dilemmas precisely because of his popularity and his having made a lifelong career of fighting the 'good cause'. How did a man who started his political career at the feet of Gandhi end up with Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo? Even in the case of Mussolini and Tojo, the gravity of the dilemma pales in comparison to that posed by his association with Hitler and the Nazi leadership. The most disturbing issue, all too often ignored, is that in the many articles, minutes, memorandums, telegrams, letters, plans, and broadcasts Bose left behind in Germany, he did not express the slightest concern or sympathy for the millions who died in the concentration camps. Not one of his Berlin wartime associates or colleagues ever quotes him expressing any indignation. Not even when the horrors of Auschwitz and its satellite camps were exposed to the world upon being liberated by Soviet troops in early 1945, revealing publicly for the first time the genocidal nature of the Nazi regime, did Bose react."
- ^ Stein 2010, hlm. 345": To many (Congress leaders), Bose's programme resembled that of the Japanese fascists, who were in the process of losing their gamble to achieve Asian ascendancy through war. Nevertheless, the success of his soldiers in Burma had stirred as much patriotic sentiment among Indians as the sacrifices of imprisoned Congress leaders. (p. 345)"
- ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2010, hlm. 210: Quote: "Marginalized within Congress and a target for British surveillance, Bose chose to embrace the fascist powers as allies against the British and fled India, first to Hitler's Germany, then, on a German submarine, to a Japanese-occupied Singapore. The force that he put together ... known as the Indian National Army (INA) and thus claiming to represent free India, saw action against the British in Burma but accomplished little toward the goal of a march on Delhi. ... Bose himself died in an airplane crash trying to reach Japanese-occupied territory in the last months of the war. His romantic saga, coupled with his defiant nationalism, has made Bose a near-mythic figure, not only in his native Bengal, but across India. It is this heroic, martial myth that is today remembered, rather than Bose's wartime vision of a free India under the authoritarian rule of someone like himself."
- ^ Stein 2010, hlm. 305,325": Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were among those who, impatient with Gandhi's programmes and methods, looked upon socialism as an alternative for nationalistic policies capable of meeting the country's economic and social needs, as well as a link to potential international support. (p. 325) (p. 345)"
- ^ Marshall J. Getz (2002). Subhas Chandra Bose: A Biography. McFarland. hlm. 7–. ISBN 978-0-7864-1265-5. Diakses tanggal 13 Juni 2012.
- Aldrich, Richard J. (2000), Intelligence and the War Against Japan: Britain, America and the Politics of Secret Service, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64186-9, diakses tanggal 6 November 2013
- Allen, Louis (2012), "The Campaigns in Asia and the Pacific", dalam John Gooch, Decisive Campaigns of the Second World War, London: Routledge, hlm. 162–191, ISBN 978-1-136-28888-3, diakses tanggal 7 November 2013
- Bandyopādhyāẏa, Śekhara (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Bayly, Christopher Alan (2012), Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-139-50518-5, diakses tanggal 11 November 2013
- Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Timothy (2007), Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-02153-2, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Timothy (2005), Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941–1945, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-01748-1, diakses tanggal 22 September 2013
- Bose, Sarmila (2005), "Love in the Time of War: Subhas Chandra Bose's Journeys to Nazi Germany (1941) and towards the Soviet Union (1945)", Economic and Political Weekly, 40 (3): 249–56
- Bose, Sugata (2011), His Majesty's Opponent: Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle against Empire, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-04754-9, diakses tanggal 22 September 2013
- Brown, Judith Margaret (1991), Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-05125-4, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Brown, Judith Margaret (1994), Modern India: the origins of an Asian democracy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-873112-2, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Copland, Ian (2001), India, 1885–1947: the unmaking of an empire, Longman, ISBN 978-0-582-38173-5, diakses tanggal 22 September 2013
- Fay, Peter Ward (1995), The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence 1942–1945, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08342-8, diakses tanggal 10 November 2013
- Gordon, Leonard A. (2006), "Legend and Legacy: Subhas Chandra Bose", India International Centre Quarterly, 33 (1): 103–12
- Gordon, Leonard A. (1990), Brothers against the Raj: a biography of Indian nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-07442-1, diakses tanggal 16 November 2013
- Hayes, Romain (2011), Subhas Chandra Bose in Nazi Germany: Politics, Intelligence and Propaganda 1941–1943, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-932739-3, diakses tanggal 22 September 2013
- Lebra, Joyce Chapman (2008a) , The Indian National Army and Japan, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-230-806-1, diakses tanggal 10 November 2013
- Lebra, Joyce Chapman (2008b), Women Against the Raj: The Rani of Jhansi Regiment, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-230-809-2
- Low, D. A. (1993), Eclipse of Empire, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45754-5, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Low, D. A. (2002), Britain and Indian Nationalism: The Imprint of Amibiguity 1929–1942, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-89261-2, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Mallmann, Klaus-Michael; Cüppers, Martin (2013), Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine, New York, NY; Washington DC: Enigma Books and United States Holocaust Museum, ISBN 978-1-929631-93-3, diakses tanggal 6 November 2013
- McLynn, Frank (2011), The Burma Campaign: Disaster Into Triumph, 1942–45, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-17162-4, diakses tanggal 6 November 2013
- Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012), A Concise History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-02649-0, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Moreman, Tim (2013), The Jungle, Japanese and the British Commonwealth Armies at War, 1941–45: Fighting Methods, Doctrine and Training for Jungle Warfare, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-135-76456-2, diakses tanggal 7 November 2013
- Pelinka, Anton (2003), Democracy Indian Style: Subhas Chandra Bose and the Creation of India's Political Culture, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-1-4128-2154-4, diakses tanggal 17 November 2013
- Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
- Wolpert, Stanley A. (2000), A New History of India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512877-2, diakses tanggal 6 November 2013
- Wolpert, Stanley (2009), Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-539394-1, diakses tanggal 21 September 2013
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