Romanisasi aksara Rusia

Romanisasi aksara Rusia adalah proses penerjemahan bahasa Rusia dari alfabet Kiril ke alfabet Latin.

Selain penggunaan utamanya untuk mengutip nama dan kata Rusia dalam bahasa yang menggunakan alfabet Latin, romanisasi juga penting bagi pengguna komputer untuk memasukkan teks Rusia yang tidak memiliki keyboard atau pengolah kata yang diatur untuk memasukkan Kiril, atau yang lainnya tidak mampu mengetik dengan cepat menggunakan sebuah papan ketik bahasa Rusia (JCUKEN). Dalam kasus terakhir, mereka akan mengetik menggunakan sistem transliterasi yang cocok dengan tata letak papan ketik mereka, seperti untuk papan ketik bahasa Inggris, QWERTY, dan kemudian akan langsung diubah menjadi alfabet Kiril.

Pavel Datsyuk 2016.JPG

Tabel penerjemahanSunting

Common systems for romanizing Russian
Cyrillic Scholarly

[1][2]

ISO/R 9:1968 GOST 16876-71(1);
UNGEGN (1987)
GOST 16876-71(2) ISO 9:1995; GOST 7.79-2000(A) GOST 7.79-2000(B) Road
signs
ALA-LC BS 2979:1958 BGN/PCGN Passport (1997) Passport (2010) Passport (2013), ICAO
А а a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Б б b b b b b b b b b b b b b
В в v v v v v v v v v v v v v
Г г g g g g g g g g g g g g g
Д д d d d d d d d d d d d d d
Е е e e e e e e e (ye)⁵ e e e (ye)¹² e (ye)¹⁴ e e
Ё ё ë ë ë jo ë yo e (ye, yo)⁶ ë ë ë (yë)¹² e (ye)¹⁴ e e
Ж ж ž ž ž zh ž zh zh zh zh zh zh zh zh
З з z z z z z z z z z z z z z
И и i i i i i i i i i i i i i
Й й j j j j j j y ĭ ĭ y ¹³ y ¹⁵ i i
К к k k k k k k k k k k k k k
Л л l l l l l l l l l l l l l
М м m m m m m m m m m m m m m
Н н n n n n n n n n n n n n n
О о o o o o o o o o o o o o o
П п p p p p p p p p p p p p p
Р р r r r r r r r r r r r r r
С с s s s s s s s s s s s s s
Т т t t t t t t t t t t t t t
У у u u u u u u u u u u u u u
Ф ф f f f f f f f f f f f f f
Х х x (ch) ch h kh h x kh kh kh kh kh kh kh
Ц ц c c c c c cz (c)³ ts t͡s ts ts ¹³ ts tc ts
Ч ч č č č ch č ch ch ch ch ch ch ch ch
Ш ш š š š sh š sh sh sh sh sh sh sh sh
Щ щ šč šč ŝ shh ŝ shh shch shch shch shch ¹³ shch shch shch
Ъ ъ ʺ ʺ ʺ ʺ ʺ ʺ Templat:Hamza ʺ ⁷ ˮ (")¹⁰ ˮ ʺ ie
Ы ы y y y y y y' y y ȳ (ui)¹¹ y ¹³ y y y
Ь ь ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ Templat:Hamza ʹ Templat:Hamza (') Templat:Hamza
Э э è è ė eh è e' e ė é e ¹³ e e e
Ю ю ju ju ju ju û yu yu i͡u yu yu yu iu iu
Я я ja ja ja ja â ya ya i͡a ya ya ya ia ia
Pre-1918 letters
І і i i i ì i (i’)⁴ ī ī
Ѳ ѳ f (th)¹ fh
Ѣ ѣ ě ě ě ě ye i͡e ê
Ѵ ѵ i (ü)¹ yh
Pre-18th century letters
Є є (j)e¹ - ē
Ѥ ѥ je¹ - i͡e
Ѕ ѕ dz (ʒ)¹ - js ż
u - ū
Ѡ ѡ ô (o)¹ - ō
Ѿ ѿ ôt (ot)¹ - ō͡t
Ѫ ѫ ǫ (u)¹ - ǎ ǫ
Ѧ ѧ ę (ja)¹ - ę
Ѭ ѭ (ju)¹ - i͡ǫ
Ѩ ѩ (ja)¹ - i͡ę
Ѯ ѯ ks - k͡s
Ѱ ѱ ps - p͡s
Cyrillic Scholarly ISO/R 9:1968 GOST 1971(1);
UNGEGN (1987)
GOST 1971(2) ISO9:1995; GOST 2002(A) GOST 2002(B) Road
signs
ALA-LC BS 2979:1958 BGN/PCGN Passport (1997) Passport (2010) Passport (2013), ICAO

Table notesSunting

⁰ Unicode recommends encoding the primes used for the soft and hard signs as modifier prime and double prime, ʹ and ʺ, which may be entered with {{softsign}} and {{hardsign}}, and the apostrophes for the same as the modifier letter apostrophes, ʼ and ˮ.
Scholarly
¹ Some archaic letters are transcribed in different ways.
GOST 16876-71 and GOST 7.79-2000
³ It is recommended to use c before i, e, y, j, but cz in all other cases.
⁴ In GOST 7.79-2000 Cyrillic і in Ukrainian and Bulgarian is always transliterated as Latin i as well as in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian texts where it is usually used before vowels. In the rare case that it falls before a consonant (for example, in the word міръ), it is transliterated with an apostrophe i’.
Street and road signs
⁵ е = ye initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь.
⁶ ё
= ye after consonants except ч, ш, щ, ж (ch, sh, shch, zh);
= e after ч, ш, щ, ж (ch, sh, shch, zh);
= yo initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь.
ALA-LC
⁷ ъ is not romanized at the end of a word.
British Standard
⁸ Diacritics may be omitted when back-transliteration is not required.
⁹ тс is romanized t-s to distinguish it from ц = ts.
¹⁰ ъ is not romanized at the end of a word.
¹¹ The British Library uses ы = ui, ый = uy.
BGN/PCGN
¹² The digraphs ye and are used to indicate iotation at the beginning of a word, after vowels, and after й, ъ or ь.
¹³ An optional middle dot (·) may be used to signify:
  • non-digraphs (тс = t·s, шч = sh·ch);
  • = й before а, у, ы, э (йа = y·a, йу = y·u, йы = y·y, йэ = y·e);
  • = ы before а, у, ы, э (ыа = y·a, ыу = y·u, ыы = y·y, ыэ = y·e);
  • ·y = ы after vowels;
  • ·e = э after consonants except й.
Passport (1997)
¹⁴ ye after ь.
¹⁵ ий is either iy or y, and ый is either y or yy.

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Lunt, Horace Grey (2001). Old Church Slavonic Grammar (edisi ke-7). Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. hlm. 17–18. ISBN 3-11-016284-9. 
  2. ^ Timberlake, Alan (2004). A Reference Grammar of Russian. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521772921.