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Phillis Wheatley, juga disebut Phyllis dan Wheatly (s. 1753 – 5 Desember 1784) adalah penyair perempuan Afrika-Amerika pertama yang karyanya diterbitkan.[1][2] Lahir di Afrika Barat, ia dijual sebagai budak pada usia tujuh atau delapan tahun dan dibawa ke Amerika Utara, Ia dibeli oleh keluarga Wheatley dari Boston, yang mengajarkannya membaca dan menulis dan mendorongnya untuk membuat pusi saat mereka melihat bakatnya.

Phillis Wheatley
Potret Phillis Wheatley, diatributkan oleh beberapa cendekiawan kepada Scipio Moorhead
Potret Phillis Wheatley, diatributkan oleh beberapa cendekiawan kepada Scipio Moorhead
LahirTemplat:Birth year
Afrika Barat
(nampaknya Gambia atau Senegal)
Meninggal5 Desember 1784(1784-12-05) (umur 31)
Boston, Massachusetts, AS
PekerjaanPenyair
BahasaInggris
Periode menulisRevolusi Amerika
Karya terkenalPoems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
PasanganJohn Peters
AnakTiga

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Henry Louis Gates, Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's Second Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers, Basic Civitas Books, 2010, p. 5.
  2. ^ For example, in the name of the Phyllis Wheatley YWCA in Washington, D.C., where "Phyllis" is etched into the name over its front door (as can be seen in photos and corresponding text for that building's National Register nomination).

Bacaan tambahanSunting

Material primer
  • Wheatley, Phillis (1988). John C. Shields, ed. The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506085-7
  • Wheatley, Phillis (2001). Vincent Carretta, ed. Complete Writings. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-042430-X
Biografi
  • Borland, (1968). Phillis Wheatley: Young Colonial Poet. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Carretta, Vincent (2011). Phillis Wheatley: Biography of A Genius in Bondage Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-3338-0
  • Gates, Henry Louis Jr. (2003). The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters With the Founding Fathers, New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01850-5
  • Richmond, M. A. (1988). Phillis Wheatley. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 1-55546-683-4
Material sekunder
  • Abcarian, Richard and Marvin Klotz. "Phillis Wheatley," In Literature: The Human Experience, 9th edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006: 1606.
  • Bassard, Katherine Clay (1999). Spiritual Interrogations: Culture, Gender, and Community in Early African American Women's Writing. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01639-9
  • Engberg, Kathrynn Seidler, The Right to Write: The Literary Politics of Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 2009. ISBN 978-0-761-84609-3
  • Langley, April C. E. (2008). The Black Aesthetic Unbound: Theorizing the Dilemma of Eighteenth-century African American Literature. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-1077-2
  • Ogude, S. E. (1983). Genius in Bondage: A Study of the Origins of African Literature in English. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press. ISBN 978-136-048-8
  • Reising, Russel J. (1996). Loose Ends: Closure and Crisis in the American Social Text. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1887-3
  • Robinson, William Henry (1981). Phillis Wheatley: A Bio-bibliography. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-8161-8318-X
  • Robinson, William Henry (1982). Critical Essays on Phillis Wheatley. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-8161-8336-8
  • Robinson, William Henry (1984). Phillis Wheatley and Her Writings. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-9346-1
  • Shockley, Ann Allen (1988). Afro-American Women Writers, 1746-1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-452-00981-2

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