Perburuan penyihir

Perburuan penyihir atau pembersihan penyihir (bahasa Inggris: witch-hunt atau witch purge) adalah sebuah pencarian dan pembersihan orang-orang yang dicap sebagai penyihir atau pencarian bukti ilmu sihir. Zaman klasik dari perburuan penyihir di Eropa Modern Awal dan Kolonial Amerika terjadi pada masa Modern Awal atau sekitar 1450 sampai 1750. Periode ini bersamaan dengan terjadinya Reformasi dan Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun, yang menyebabkan sekitar 35.000 sampai 50.000 orang dieksekusi mati.[1] Hukuman mati terakhir terhadap orang yang dituduh penyihir di Eropa terjadi pada abad ke-18. Di kawasan lainnya, seperti Afrika dan Asia, perburuan penyihir dilaporkan terjadi di Afrika sub-Sahara dan Papua Nugini. Undang-Undang yang menentang ilmu sihir masih ditemukan di Arab Saudi dan Kamerun sampai saat ini.

Pembakaran tiga "penyihir" di Baden, Swiss (1585), karya Johann Jakob Wick

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Golden, Richard M. (1997). "Satan in Europe: The Geography of Witch Hunts". Dalam Wolfe, Michael. Changing Identities in Early Modern France. Duke University Press. hlm. 234. 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Andreassen, Reidun Laura and Liv Helene Willumsen (eds.), Steilneset Memorial. Art Architecture History. Stamsund: Orkana, 2014. ISBN 978-82-8104-245-2
  • Behringer, Wolfgang. Witches and Witch Hunts: A Global History. Malden Massachusetts: Polity Press, 2004.
  • Briggs, Robin. 'Many reasons why': witchcraft and the problem of multiple explanation, in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Studies in Culture and Belief, ed. Jonathan Barry, Marianne Hester, and Gareth Roberts, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Burns, William E. Witch hunts in Europe and America: an encyclopedia (2003)
  • Cohn, Norman. Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt (1975), Revised Edition: Europe's Inner Demons: The Demonization of Christians in Medieval Christendom, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Durrant, Jonathan B. Witchcraft, Gender, and Society in Early Modern Germany, Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Federici, Silvia (2004). Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body, and Primitive Accumulation. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-059-7. 
  • Golden, William, ed. Encyclopedia of Witchcraft: The Western Tradition (4 vol. 2006) 1270pp; 758 short essays by scholars.
  • Goode, Erich; Ben-Yahuda, Nachman (1994). Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance . Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-18905-3. 
  • Gouges, Linnea de, Witch hunts and State Building in Early Modern Europe (2018)
  • Klaits, Joseph. Servants of Satan: The Age of the Witch Hunts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985
  • Levack, Brian P. The Great Scottish Witch Hunt of 1661–1662, The Journal of British Studies, Vol.20, No, 1. (Autumn, 1980), pp. 90–108.
  • Levack, Brian P. The witch hunt in early modern Europe, Third Edition. London and New York: Longman, 2006.
  • Macfarlane, Alan. Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A regional and Comparative Study. New York and Evanston: Harper & Row Publishers, 1970.
  • Midlefort, Erick H.C. Witch Hunting in Southeastern Germany 1562–1684: The Social and Intellectual Foundation. California: Stanford University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8047-0805-3
  • Monter, William (1972). "The Historiography of European Witchcraft: Progress and Prospect". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 2 (4): 435–451. doi:10.2307/202315. JSTOR 202315. 
  • Oberman, H. A., J. D. Tracy, Thomas A. Brady (eds.), Handbook of European History, 1400–1600: Visions, Programs, Outcomes (1995) ISBN 90-04-09761-9
  • Oldridge, Darren (ed.), The Witchcraft Reader (2002) ISBN 0-415-21492-0
  • Poole, Robert. The Lancashire Witches: Histories and Stories (2002) ISBN 0-7190-6204-7
  • Purkiss, Diane. "A Holocaust of One's Own: The Myth of the Burning Times." Chapter in The Witch and History: Early Modern and Twentieth Century Representatives New York, NY: Routledge, 1996, pp. 7–29.
  • Robisheaux, Thomas. The Last Witch of Langenburg: Murder in a German Village. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (2009) ISBN 978-0-393-06551-0
  • Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World, Random House, 1996. ISBN 0-394-53512-X
  • David W. Thompson, "Sister Witch: The Life of Moll Dyer" (2017 Solstice Publishing) ISBN 978-1973105756
  • Thurston, Robert. The Witch Hunts: A History of the Witch Persecutions in Europe and North America. Pearson/Longman, 2007.
  • Purkiss, Diane. The Bottom of the Garden, Dark History of Fairies, Hobgoblins, and Other Troublesome Things. Chapter 3 Brith and Death: Fairies in Scottish Witch-trials New York, NY: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 85–115.
  • West, Robert H. Reginald Scot and Renaissance Writings. Boston: Twayne Publishers,1984.
  • Willumsen, Liv Helene. The Witchcraft Trials in Finnmark, Northern Norway. Bergen: Skald, 2010. ISBN 978-82-7959-152-8
  • Willumsen, Liv Helene. Witches of the North:Scotland and Finnmark. Leiden: Brill, 2013. ISBN 9789004252912. E-ISBN 9789004252929
  • Briggs, K.M. Pale Hecate's Team, an Examination of the Beliefs on Witchcraft and Magic among Shakespeare's Contemporaries and His Immediate Successors. New York: The Humanities Press, 1962.

Pranala luarSunting