Paradoks hukuman gantung tidak terduga

Paradoks hukuman gantung tidak terduga atau paradoks orang yang digantung adalah sebuah paradoks soal perasaan seseorang menjelang peristiwa mendatang yang mereka katakan akan terjadi dalam keadaan tidak terduga. Paradoks tersebut diterapkan kepada tahanan yang akan digantung, atau ujian sekolah dadakan.[1]

Referensi sunting

  1. ^ Binkley, Robert (1968). "The Surprise Examination in Modal Logic". The Journal of Philosophy. 65 (5): 127–136. doi:10.2307/2024556. JSTOR 2024556. 

Bacaan tambahan sunting

  • O'Connor, D. J. (1948). "Pragmatic Paradoxes". Mind. 57 (227): 358–359. doi:10.1093/mind/lvii.227.358.  The first appearance of the paradox in print. The author claims that certain contingent future tense statements cannot come true.
  • Levy, Ken (2009). "The Solution to the Surprise Exam Paradox". Southern Journal of Philosophy. 47 (2): 131–158. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1111/j.2041-6962.2009.tb00088.x. SSRN 1435806 . Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2017-03-20. Diakses tanggal 2018-01-02.  The author argues that a surprise exam (or unexpected hanging) can indeed take place on the last day of the period and therefore that the very first premise that launches the paradox is, despite first appearances, simply false.
  • Scriven, M. (1951). "Paradoxical Announcements". Mind. 60 (239): 403–407. doi:10.1093/mind/lx.239.403.  The author critiques O'Connor and discovers the paradox as we know it today.
  • Shaw, R. (1958). "The Unexpected Examination". Mind. 67 (267): 382–384. doi:10.1093/mind/lxvii.267.382.  The author claims that the prisoner's premises are self-referring.
  • Wright, C. & Sudbury, A. (1977). "the Paradox of the Unexpected Examination". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 55: 41–58. doi:10.1080/00048407712341031.  The first complete formalization of the paradox, and a proposed solution to it.
  • Margalit, A. & Bar-Hillel, M. (1983). "Expecting the Unexpected". Philosophia. 13 (3–4): 337–344. doi:10.1007/BF02379182.  A history and bibliography of writings on the paradox up to 1983.
  • Chihara, C. S. (1985). "Olin, Quine, and the Surprise Examination". Philosophical Studies. 47 (2): 19–26. doi:10.1007/bf00354146.  The author claims that the prisoner assumes, falsely, that if he knows some proposition, then he also knows that he knows it.
  • Kirkham, R. (1991). "On Paradoxes and a Surprise Exam". Philosophia. 21 (1–2): 31–51. doi:10.1007/bf02381968.  The author defends and extends Wright and Sudbury's solution. He also updates the history and bibliography of Margalit and Bar-Hillel up to 1991.
  • Franceschi, P. (2005). "Une analyse dichotomique du paradoxe de l'examen surprise". Philosophiques (dalam bahasa Prancis). 32 (2): 399–421. doi:10.7202/011875ar.  English translation.
  • Gardner, M. (1969). "The Paradox of the Unexpected Hanging". The Unexpected Hanging and Other * Mathematical Diversions.  Completely analyzes the paradox and introduces other situations with similar logic.
  • Quine, W. V. O. (1953). "On a So-called Paradox". Mind. 62 (245): 65–66. doi:10.1093/mind/lxii.245.65. 
  • Sorensen, R. A. (1982). "Recalcitrant versions of the prediction paradox". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 69 (4): 355–362. doi:10.1080/00048408212340761. 

Pranala luar sunting