Orang kulit putih atau orang Kaukasian merupakan istilah yang biasanya merujuk pada manusia yang memiliki ciri, setidaknya sebagian, dengan pigmentasi kulit putih. Namun, daripada deskripsi terus terang tentang warna kulit, istilah kulit putih lebih mengacu kepada kelompok etnis tertentu dan lebih berfungsi sebagai metafor untuk suatu "ras manusia". "Orang Kulit Putih" juga kadang-kadang disebut "orang Kaukasian".

Orang kulit putih
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
 Amerika Serikat197.181.177[1]
 Rusia141.668.567[2][3]
 Brasil91.051.646[4]
 Prancis67.119.000[5]
 Jerman62.482.000[6]
 Italia55.551.000[7]
 Britania Raya51.736.290[8][9][10]
 Meksiko59.000.000[11][12][13][14]
 Spanyol41.539.400[15]
 Polandia38.080.000[16][butuh rujukan]
Bahasa
Bahasa-bahasa di Eropa (Inggris, Prancis, Jerman, Italia, Spanyol, Portugis, Rusia, dll)
Agama
P christianity.svg Mayoritas Kristen
(Katolik, Protestan, dan Orthodoks)
Tidak beragama
Kelompok etnis terkait
Orang Eropa, Indo-Eropa, orang Asia Tengah

Definisi "orang Kulit putih" yang paling sering digunakan adalah orang yang memiliki tampang keturunan Eropa yang jelas. Namun, definisi "orang Kulit putih" berbeda-beda menurut konteks geografis dan historis, dan sejumlah konsep warna putih berdampak pada identitas nasional, konsanguitas, kebijakan publik, agama, statistik populasi, pemisahan ras/tindakan persetujuan, egenika, marginalisasi ras, dan kuota rasial. Konsep ini telah diterapkan dengan sekian derajat formalitas dan konsistensi internal dalam berbagai bidang ilmu, seperti sosiologi, politik, genetika, biologi, kedokteran, biomedik, bahasa, budaya, dan hukum.

Sejarah istilahSunting

Paham "orang Kulit putih" atau "ras Kulit putih" sebagai kelompok populasi yang dibedakan dari "orang Kulit berwarna" muncul pada abad ke-17. Namun deskripsi pragmatis yang mengatakan kelompok manusia sebagai "putih" dengan mengacu pada warna kulitnya adalah lebih dini dan ditemukan dalam naskah etnografis Yunani dan Romawi kuno dan juga sumber-sumber kuno lain.

BibliografiSunting

  1. ^ "ACS Demographic and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 2019. Diakses tanggal August 13, 2020. 
  2. ^ "Russian in Russia". Joshua Project. Diakses tanggal August 13, 2020. 
  3. ^ Out of the total 129,297,527 million Europeans, 117,319,000 are ethnic Russians, and the other 11,978,527 million people are other European minorities within the territory of the Russian Federation, however an enlarged European population of 141,668,567 million people include the Russian Jews, Turks, Azeris, Armenians, Peoples of the Caucasus, and Tatars.
  4. ^ "Censo Demográfi co 2010 Características da população e dos domicílios Resultados do universo" (PDF). 8 November 2011. Diakses tanggal 12 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "Démographie – Population au début du mois – France". Insee.fr. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Diakses tanggal 24 February 2020. 
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  11. ^ "The World Factbook: North America: Mexico: People and Society". The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Diakses tanggal 23 August 2017. mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) 
  12. ^ "Mexico: Ethnic groups". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diakses tanggal 23 August 2017: Ethnic composition (2010): 64.3% mestizo; 15% Mexican white; 10.5% detribalized Amerindian; 7.5% other Amerindian; 1% Arab; 0.5% Mexican black; 1.2% other. 
  13. ^ "21 de Marzo: Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" [21 March: International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination] (PDF) (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Mexico: CONAPRED. 2017. hlm. 7. Diakses tanggal 23 August 2017. 
  14. ^ Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico [National Survey on Discrimination in Mexico] (PDF) (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Mexico: CONAPRED. June 2011. Diakses tanggal 24 August 2017. 
  15. ^ "Official Population Figures of Spain. Population on 1 January 2013". INE Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 
  16. ^ Central Statistical Office (January 2013). "The national-ethnic affiliation in the population – The results of the census of population and housing in 2011" (PDF) (dalam bahasa Polski). hlm. 1. Diakses tanggal 6 March 2013. 
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