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Lingkungan dan orientasi seksual

Studi mengenai lingkungan dan orientasi seksual adalah penelitian yang mencari kemungkinan pengaruh lingkungan dalam pembentukan orientasi seksual. Beberapa peneliti membedakan antara pengaruh lingkungan dengan pengaruh hormonal,[1] sementara yang lain memasukkan pengaruh biologis seperti hormon prenatal sebagai bagian dari pengaruh lingkungan.[2]

Ilmuwan tidak tahu pasti apa yang menyebabkan orientasi seksual, tetapi mereka berteori bahwa ini adalah hasil dari pengaruh kompleks antara genetik, hormonal, dan pengaruh lingkungan.[3][4][5] Tidak seperti identitas orientasi seksual, mereka tidak melihat orientasi seksual sebagai sebuah pilihan.[3][4][6]

Hipotesis bahwa lingkungan sosial pascalahir berdampak pada orientasi seksual adalah lemah, terutama bagi laki-laki.[7] Meskipun tidak ada bukti kuat yang berpendapat bahwa pengasuhan orang tua atau pengalaman kanak-kanak awal berperan dalam orientasi seksual,[8][9] beberapa studi telah menghubungkan pengasuhan orang tua dengan identitas non-heteroseksual,[2][10] serta nonkonformitas gender masa kanak-kanak dan homoseksualitas.[11][12][13]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (June 2004). "Sexual orientation and adolescents". Pediatrics. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. PMID 15173519. 
  2. ^ a b Långström, Niklas; Qazi Rahman; Eva Carlström; Paul Lichtenstein (7 June 2008). "Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behaviour: A Population Study of Twins in Sweden". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 39 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1. PMID 18536986. 
  3. ^ a b Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (June 2004). "Sexual orientation and adolescents". Pediatrics. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. PMID 15173519. 
  4. ^ a b Mary Ann Lamanna; Agnes Riedmann; Susan D Stewart (2014). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. hlm. 82. ISBN 1305176898. Diakses tanggal January 11, 2016. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychology Association 2010). 
  5. ^ Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. hlm. 502. ISBN 032329412X. Diakses tanggal January 11, 2016. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. 
  6. ^ Gloria Kersey-Matusiak (2012). Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. hlm. 169. ISBN 0826193811. Diakses tanggal January 10, 2016. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.' 
  7. ^ Bailey JM, Vasey PL, Diamond LM, Breedlove SM, Vilain E, Epprecht M (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (21): 45–101. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. PMID 27113562. 
  8. ^ "Sexual Orientation". American Psychiatric Association. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 22, 2011. Diakses tanggal January 1, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Submission to the Church of England's Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality". The Royal College of Psychiatrists. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2013. 
  10. ^ Schumm, Walter R. (November 2010). "CHILDREN OF HOMOSEXUALS MORE APT TO BE HOMOSEXUALS? A REPLY TO MORRISON AND TO CAMERON BASED ON AN EXAMINATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF DATA". Journal of Biosocial Science. 42 (06): 721–42. doi:10.1017/S0021932010000325. PMID 20642872. Diakses tanggal 6 September 2014. 
  11. ^ Bearman, Peter; Brückner, Hannah (2002). "Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction" (PDF). American Journal of Sociology. 107: 1179–1205. doi:10.1086/341906. 
  12. ^ Bem, Daryl (11 Oct 2008). "Is There a Causal Link Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Adult Homosexuality?". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health. 12 (1-2): 61–79. doi:10.1300/J529v12n01_05. Diakses tanggal 10 September 2014. 
  13. ^ Rieger G, Linsenmeier JA, Gygax L, Bailey JM (Jan 2008). "Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: evidence from home videos". Dev Psychol. 44 (1): 46–58. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.46. PMID 18194004.