Leonora Carrington

Leonora Carrington OBE (6 April 1917  – 25 Mei 2011 [1] ) adalah seorang seniwati, pelukis surealisme, dan novelis. Ia adalah orang Meksiko yang lahir di Inggris. Ia hidup sebagian besar di Mexico City dan adalah salah satu dari anggota gerakan Surealis pada tahun 1930an.[2] Carrington juga merupakan anggota pendiri dari Gerakan Pembebas Perempuan di Meksiko pada tahun 1970an.[3][4]

Leonora Carrington
Berkas:Leonora Carrington.jpg
Lahir(1917-04-06)6 April 1917
Clayton-le-Woods, Lancashire, Inggris
Meninggal25 Mei 2011(2011-05-25) (umur 94)
Mexico City, Meksiko
Dikenal atasLukisan
Tulisan
Gerakan politikSurrealisme
Suami/istriRenato Leduc
Emerico "Chiki" Weisz
AnakGabriel dan Pablo Weisz
Situs webwww.leocarrington.com

Kehidupan awalSunting

Carrington lahir di Clayton Green, Chorley, Lancashire,[5][6] Inggris. Ayahnya adalah produsen tekstil yang kaya,[5][7] dan ibunya, Maureen (née Moorhead), adalah orang Irlandia.[5] Ia memiliki tiga saudara lelaki: Patrick, Gerald, dan Arthur.[8][9]

Dididik oleh pengasuh, pengajar, dan biarawati, ia dikeluarkan dari dua sekolah, termasuk New Hall School, Chelmsford,[10] karena perilakunya yang memberontak, sampai keluarganya mengirimnya ke Florence, di mana ia menghadiri Akademi Seni Nyonya Penrose. Dia juga, secara singkat, menghadiri sekolah biara St Mary di Ascot.[11] Pada tahun 1927, pada usia sepuluh tahun, ia melihat lukisan surealis pertamanya di galeri Left Bank di Paris dan kemudian bertemu banyak surealis, termasuk Paul Éluard.[12] Ayahnya menentang kariernya sebagai seniman, tetapi ibunya mendorongnya. Dia kembali ke Inggris dan pergi ke Pengadilan, tetapi menurutnya, dia membawa salinan Aldous Huxley's Eyeless di Gaza (1936) sebagai gantinya. Pada tahun 1935, ia menghadiri Sekolah Seni Chelsea di London selama satu tahun, dan dengan bantuan teman ayahnya Serge Chermayeff, ia dapat pindah ke Akademi Seni Rupa Ozenfant yang didirikan oleh Amédée Ozenfant, seorang modernis Prancis di London (1936–1938).[8][13]

Dia menjadi akrab dengan Surealisme dari salinan buku Herbert Read, Surrealisme (1936), yang diberikan kepadanya oleh ibunya,[9] tetapi dia menerima sedikit dorongan dari keluarganya untuk menempa karier artistik. Penyair dan pelindung Surrealist Edward James adalah juara karyanya di Inggris; James membeli banyak lukisannya dan mengatur pertunjukan pada tahun 1947 untuk karyanya di Galeri Pierre Matisse di New York. Beberapa karya masih tergantung di bekas rumah keluarga James, saat ini West Dean College di West Dean, Sussex Barat.[14]

KematianSunting

Leonora Carrington meninggal pada 25 Mei 2011, pada usia 94 tahun, di sebuah rumah sakit di Mexico City, sebagai akibat dari komplikasi yang timbul dari pneumonia.[15][16]

 
Leonora Carrington, Museum Antropologi Nasional
 
Patung karya Carrington dipajang di dekat Universitas Guanajuato selama Festival Internacional Cervantino 2015.

PameranSunting

  • 2019: LEONORA CARRINGTON, The Story of the Last Egg, GALLERY WENDI NORRIS OFFSITE EXHIBITION, New York, NY, May 23 – June 29, 2019
  • 2018: the Leonora Carrington Museum opens in San Luis Potosí, México.
  • 2018: Leonora Carrington. Cuentos Mágicos, Museo de Arte Moderno de la Ciudad de México, Mexico, April - September 2018 [17]
  • 2017: Mad About Surrealism, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Netherlands, Rotterdam[18]
  • 2017: Surrealist Women, Mayoral, Barcelona, Spain, Barcelona [18]
  • 2016: Monstruosismos, Museo de Arte Moderno de Ciudad de México, Mexico, Bosque de Chapultepec[18]
  • 2016: Surreal Encounters. Collecting the Marvellous, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, UK, Edinburgh[18]
  • 2016: Dalí, Ernst, Miró, Magritte ... : Surreal Encounters from the Collections Edward James, Roland Penrose[18]
  • 2016: Gabrielle Keiller, Ulla and Heiner Pietzsch, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Germany, Hamburg[18]
  • 2016: Artists and Lovers, Ordovas Gallery, London, UK, Mayfair[18]
  • 2016: Strange Worlds: The Vision of Angela Carter, Royal West Of England Academy, UK, Bristol[18]
  • 2016: Leonora Carrington: The Last Tuesday Society & Viktor Wynd's Museum of Curiosities, Fine Art & Natural History. Hackney, London, September – December 2016[19]
  • 2015: Leonora Carrington: Tate Liverpool, 6 March – 31 May 2015[18]
  • 2015: Surrealism and Magic, Boca Raton Museum of Art, USA, Boca Raton[18]
  • 2015: Kahlo, Rivera & Mexican Modern Art, NSU Art Museum, Fort Lauderdale, USA, Ft. Lauderdale[18]
  • 2015: Mexico: Fantastic Identity. 20th Century Masterpieces from the FEMSA Collection, Museum of Latin American Art, USA, Long Beach [18]
  • 2015: Lorna Otero Project Album of Family, Miami, The Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum, Florida International University, USA, Downtown Miami[18]
  • 2015: Surrealism: The Conjured Life, Museum of Contemporary Art (MCA) Chicago, USA, Near North Side[18]
  • 2015: Fields of Dream: The Surrealist Landscape, Di Donna, USA, Upper East Side[18]
  • 2014: Surrealism and Magic, Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, USA, Ithaca[18]
  • 2014: Paper, Pencil & Ink: Prints & Other Works on Paper, Ruiz-Healy Art, USA, San Antonio[18]
  • 2013: Max Ernst, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland, Basel[18]
  • 2013–2014: Leonora Carrington: The Celtic Surrealist, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, Ireland (solo)[20]
  • 2012: In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States, Los Angeles [18]
  • 2012: County Museum of Art, USA, Park La Brea[18]
  • 2011: Exultation: Sex, Death and Madness in Eight Surrealist Masterworks, Wendi Norris Gallery, USA, Union Square[18]
  • 2011: The Colour of My Dreams The Surrealist Revolution in Art, Vancouver Art Gallery, Canada, Vancouver[18]
  • 2011: The Good, The Bad, The Ugly?, Museum of Latin American Art, USA, Long Beach[18]
  • 2011: Night Scented Stock, Marianne Boesky Gallery, 118 East 64th Street, USA, Upper East Side[18]
  • 2011: Leonora Carrington & Tilly Losch, Viktor Wynd Fine Art Inc.[21]
  • 2010: Surreal Friends, Pallant House Gallery, UK, Chichester[18]
  • 2010: Divine Comedy, Sotheby's New York, USA, Upper East Side[18]
  • 2009: Latitudes: Latin American Masters from the Femsa Collection, The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, USA, Santa Ana[18]
  • 2009: Angels of Anarchy: Women Artists and Surrealism, Manchester Art Gallery, UK, Manchester[18]
  • 2008: Arte Americas The Latin American Art Fair, Tresart, USA, Coral Gables [18]
  • 2008: Works from the Natasha and Jacques Gelman Collection of Modern Mexican Art, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Ireland, Dublin[18]
  • 2008: Talismanic Lens, Frey Norris Gallery, San Francisco, CA (solo)[20]
  • 2007: Surrealism: Dreams on Canvas, Nassau County Museum of Art, Roslyn Harbor, NY[20]
  • 2003: Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera and 20th Century Mexican Art: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection, National Museum of Mexican Art, Chicago, IL
  • 2001–2002: Surrealism: Desire Unbound, The Tate, London, England and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY[20]
  • 1999: Mirror Images: Women, Surrealism and Self-Representation, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA

Surrealism: Two Private Eyes/The Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi Collections, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY[20]

  • 1993: Regards des Femmes, Musée d'Art Moderne, Lieja, France

Sujeto-Objeto, Museo Regional de Guanajuato, Guanajuato y Museo de Monterrey, Moneterrey, Mexico[20]

  • 1991: Galería de Arte del Auropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico (solo)

Serpentine Gallery, London, England (solo) Sainsbury, Norwich, England (solo) Arnolfini, Bristol, England (solo) The Mexican Museum, San Francisco, CA (solo)[20]

  • 1990: Art Company, Leeds, England (solo)

Brewster Gallery, New York, NY (solo)[20]

  • 1989: Museo Nacional de la Estampa, INBA, Mexico (solo)[20]
  • 1987: Brewster Gallery, New York, NY (solo)

Art Space Mirage, Tokyo, Japan (solo) Alexander Iolas Gallery, New York, NY (solo)[20]

  • 1976: Leonora Carrington : a retrospective exhibition, Center for Inter-American Relations, New York City [22]
  • 1976: Leonora Carrington : a retrospective exhibition, University Art Museum, University of Texas at Austin [22]
  • 1970: Impressionism to Surrealism, Worthing Art Gallery, Worthing, England[20]
  • 1969: The Surrealists, Byron Gallery, New York, NY

Galerie Pierre, Paris, France (solo) Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Sala Nacional, Mexico (solo) Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Mexico (solo) Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City, Mexico (solo)[20]

  • 1968: Artistas Británicos en México 1800/1968, Instituto Anglo-Mexicano de Cultura, Mexico[20]
  • 1967: IX Bienal de Pintura, São Paulo, Brazil[20]
  • 1966: Surrealism: A State of Mind, Universidad de California, Santa Barbara, CA

Surrealismo y Arte Fantástico en México, Galeria Universitaria, Aristos, Mexico 1965: Galería Antonio Souza, Mexico City, Mexico (solo) Instituto Cultural Anglo-Mexicano, Mexico (solo) Galería Clardecor, Mexico City, Mexico (solo)[20]

  • 1963: Pinturas de la colección de Edward James, Worthing Art Gallery, Worthing, England[20]
  • 1961: El Retrato Mexicano Contemporáneo, Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Mexico[20]
  • 1959: Eros Galerie, Daniel Cordier, Paris, France[20]
  • 1956: Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City, Mexico (solo)[20]
  • 1943: Exhibition by 31 Women, the Art of This Century gallery, New York, NY[23]

First Papers of Surrealism, Madison Avenue Gallery, New York, NY 20th Century Portraits, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY[20]

  • 1942: Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, NY (solo)[20]
  • 1938: Esposition du Surréalisme, Galerie Robert, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Galerie Beaux-Arts, Paris, France [20]

BooksSunting

  • La Maison de la Peur, H. Parisot, 1938 – dengan ilustrasi oleh Max Ernst
  • Down Below (VVV magazine, 1944) Reprinted by Black Swan Press in 1983 and New York Review of Books in 2017.
  • Une chemise de nuit de flanelle, Libr. Les Pas Perdus, 1951, translated by Yves Bonnefoy, desain sampul oleh Max Ernst
  • El Mundo Mágico de Los Mayas, Museo Nacional de Antropología, 1964 – ilustrasi oleh Leonora Carrington
  • The Oval Lady: Surreal Stories (Capra Press, 1975)[24]
  • The Hearing Trumpet (Routledge, 1976);[25] Penguin Books, Limited, 2005,  
  • The Stone Door (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977)[26]
  • The Seventh Horse and Other Tales (Dutton, 1988)[27]
  • The House of Fear (Trans. K. Talbot and M. Warner. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1988)[28]
  • The Complete Stories of Leonora Carrington (Dorothy, a publishing project, 2017. Introduction by Kathryn Davis)

Karya seniSunting

  • Self-Portrait (Inn of the Dawn Horse), 1936–1937, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Collection
  • Portrait of Max Ernst, 1939 (koleksi pribadi)
  • The Horses of Lord Candlestick, 1938 (koleksi pribadi)
  • The Meal of Lord Candlestick, 1938
  • The Inn of the Dawn Horse (Self-Portrait), 1939 (first major Surrealist work) Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • The Kitchen Garden on the Eyot, 1946, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art[29]
  • The Giantess (The Guardian of the Egg), 1947 (koleksi pribadin)
  • The Old Maids, 1947, Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts University of East Anglia
  • The Temptation of St. Anthony, 1947, Museo del Prado, Madrid
  • The Bird Bath, 1974
  • The Memory Tower, 1995, The Viktor Wynd Museum of Curiosities, Fine Art & Natural History, London
  • Gatomaquia, 2009, Museo Leonora Carrington, México

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Mark Stevenson (27 May 2011). "Surrealist Leonora Carrington dies at 94 in Mexico City". Gettysburg Times. Associated Press. 
  2. ^ "Leonora Carrington dead at 94". Diakses tanggal 23 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (1986). "Leonora Carrington: Evolution of a Feminist Consciousness". Woman's Art Journal: 37–42. 
  4. ^ Phaidon Editors (2019). Great women artists. Phaidon Press. hlm. 90. ISBN 978-0714878775. 
  5. ^ a b c Leo Carrington & Sons website Diarsipkan 29 May 2011 di Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ See Carrington's "El Mundo Magico de Los Mayas".
  7. ^ Robinson, Michael. Surrealism (Fulham: Star Fire, 2006), pg. 312.
  8. ^ a b Aberth, Susan (2010). Leonora Carrington: Surrealism, Alchemy and Art. Lund Humphries. hlm. 11, 20–43, 149. 
  9. ^ a b William Grimes (26 May 2011). "Leonora Carrington Is Dead at 94; Artist and Author of Surrealist Work". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ New Hall School website; retrieved 27 May 2011
  11. ^ Silvano Levy (27 May 2011). "Leonora Carrington: Surrealist painter and sculptor who found her artistic and spiritual home in Mexico". The Independent. Diakses tanggal 26 December 2017. 
  12. ^ Carrington Leonara. "Carrington Leonara bio". Diakses tanggal 14 May 2013. 
  13. ^ Grimes, William (2011-05-26). "Leonora Carrington, Surrealist, Dies at 94". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Diakses tanggal 2017-03-11. 
  14. ^ Leonora and me (accessed online 4 April 2008)
  15. ^ "Leonora Carrington's Death". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 27 September 2013. Diakses tanggal 25 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Moorhead, Joanna (26 May 2011). "Leonora Carrington obituary". The Guardian. Diakses tanggal 2 May 2017. 
  17. ^ "Exposición: Leonora Carrington. Cuentos Mágicos". Museo de Arte Moderno. Diakses tanggal 2018-10-02. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Leonora Carrington (British, 1917 - 2011)". www.mutualart.com (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2017-03-11. 
  19. ^ Leonora Carrington: The Last Tuesday Society, An Exhibition of 35 works by the Anglo-Mexican Surrealist from The Viktor Wynd Collection, September – December 2016
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Leonora Carrington (British, 1917-2011)". Artnet. 
  21. ^ "Viktor Wynd Fine Art Inc". viktorwyndfineart.co.uk. Diakses tanggal 2015-10-04. 
  22. ^ a b "Leonora Carrington : a retrospective exhibition : Center for Inter-American Relations, New York City, Nov. 26-Jan. 4, 1976 : University Art Museum, The University of Texas at Austin, Jan. 18-Feb. 29, 1976". 
  23. ^ Butler, Cornelia H.; Schwartz, Alexandra (2010). Modern Women: Women Artists at The Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art. hlm. 45. ISBN 9780870707711. 
  24. ^ Orenstein, Leonora Carrington; illustrated by Pablo Weisz; translated [from the Spanish] by Rochelle Holt; foreword by Gloria (1975). The oval lady, other stories : six surreal stories. Santa Barbara: Capra Press. ISBN 978-0884960362. 
  25. ^ Weisz-Carrington, Leonora Carrington; ill. by Pablo (1976). The hearing trumpet. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7100-8637-2. 
  26. ^ Carrington, Leonora (1977). The stone door. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312762100. 
  27. ^ Kerrigan, Leonara Carrington; translations by Kathrine Talbot & Anthony (1988). The seventh horse, and other tales  (edisi ke-1st). New York: E.P. Dutton. ISBN 0525483845. 
  28. ^ Talbot, Leonora Carrington; introduction by Marina Warner; translations by Kathrine; Warner, Marina (1988). The house of fear : notes from Down below (edisi ke-1st). New York: E.P. Dutton. ISBN 0525246487. 
  29. ^ June 26, Charles Desmarais; June 26, 2019 Updated; 2019; Am, 10:49. "SFMOMA sold a Rothko for $50 million, this is what they bought with the proceeds". Datebook | San Francisco Arts & Entertainment Guide (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2019-06-27.