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Komodifikasi adalah transformasi barang, jasa, gagasan, dan orang menjadi komoditas atau objek dagang. Menurut Arjun Appadurai, komoditas pada dasarnya adalah "apapun yang dimaksudkan untuk ditukar," atau objek apapun yang memiliki nilai ekonomi.[1] Orang terkomofidikasi (menjadi objek) saat bekerja, dengan menjual tenaga buruh mereka di pasar kepada seorang majikan.[2] Salah satu bentuk komodifikasi adalah perbudakan. Bentuk komodifikasi lainnya adalah perdagangan hewan atau perdagangan bagian-bagian tubuh melalui transplantasi organ resmi maupun tak resmi.[3]

Komodifikasi seringkali dikritik atas dasar bahwa beberapa hal tidak pantas dijadikan komoditas—contohnya air, pendidikan, data, informasi, dan pengetahuan dalam era digital.[4]

IstilahSunting

Penggunaan terawal dari kata komodifikasi atau commodification dalam bahasa Inggris tercantum dalam Oxford English Dictionary pada tahun 1975.[5]

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Arjun Appadurai, "Definitions: Commodity and Commodification," in Martha Ertman, Joan C. Williams (eds.), Rethinking Commodification: Cases and Readings in Law and Culture, New York University Press, 2005, hlm. 35.

    Arjun Appadurai, "Introduction: commodities and the politics of value," dalam Arjun Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in a Cultural Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1986, hlm. 3.

  2. ^ Esping-Andersen, Gosta (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (PDF). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-691-09457-8. 
  3. ^ For animals, "United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database", UN ComTrade; Josephine Donovan, "Aestheticizing Animal Cruelty," College Literature, 38(4), Fall 2011 (pp. 202–217), hlm. 203. JSTOR 41302895
    Untuk budak sebagai komoditas, Appadurai 1986, hlm. 84–85; David Hawkes, Shakespeare and Economic Theory, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015, hlm. 130.

    Untuk komodifikasi tubuh, Lesley A. Sharp, "The Commodification of the Body and Its Parts," Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 2000 (hlm. 287–328) hlm. 295ff. JSTOR 223423

  4. ^ Rigi, Jakob (2012). "Peer to Peer Production as the Alternative to Capitalism: A New Communist Horizon". Journal of Peer Production. 
  5. ^ commodification, n. Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/37198>; accessed 6 January 2011.

Daftar pustakaSunting

  • Farah, Paolo Davide, Tremolada Riccardo, Desirability of Commodification of Intangible Cultural Heritage: The Unsatisfying Role of IPRs, in TRANSNATIONAL DISPUTE MANAGEMENT, Special Issues "The New Frontiers of Cultural Law: Intangible Heritage Disputes", Volume 11, Issue 2, March 2014, ISSN 1875-4120 Available at SSRN.com
  • Farah, Paolo Davide, Tremolada Riccardo, Intellectual Property Rights, Human Rights and Intangible Cultural Heritage, Journal of Intellectual Property Law, Issue 2, Part I, June 2014, ISSN 0035-614X, Giuffre, pp. 21–47. Available at SSRN.com
  • Schimank, Uwe and Volkmann, Ute (ed.): The Marketization of Society: Economizing the Non-Economic. Bremen: Research Cluster "Welfare Societies", 2012.
  • Prodnik, Jernej (2012). "A Note on the Ongoing Processes of Commodification: From the Audience Commodity to the Social Factory". triple-C: Cognition, Communication, Co-operation (Vol. 10, No. 2) - special issue "Marx is Back" (edited by Christian Fuchs and Vincent Mosco). hlm. 274–301. Diakses tanggal 30 March 2013. 

Bacaan tambahanSunting

Polanyi, Karl. "The Self-Regulating Market," Economics as a Social Science, 2nd edn, 2004.