Kaisar Etiopia

(Dialihkan dari Kaisar Ethiopia)


Kaisar Etiopia (Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "Raja dari Segala Raja") adalah penguasa warisan Kekaisaran Etiopia, sampai pembubaran monarki pada 1975. Kaisarnya adalah kepala negara dan kepala pemerintahan, dengan kekuasaan eksekutif, yudisial dan legislatif di negara tersebut. Sebuah artikel National Geographic Magazine menyebut kekaisaran Etiopia merupakan "sebuah monarki konstitusional; pada kenyataannya [kerajaan tersebut merupakan] sebuah autokrasi benevolent".[2]

Kaisar Etiopia
Bekas Kerajaan
Imperial
Imperial coat of arms of Ethiopia (Haile Selassie).svg
Lambang Kekaisaran
Haile Selassie (1969).jpg
Haile Selassie I
Penguasa pertama Menelik I
Penguasa terakhir Haile Selassie I
Kediaman resmi Istana Menelik
Penunjuk Warisan
Pendirian s. 980 SM[1]
Pembubaran 21 Maret 1975
Penuntut takhta Zera Yacob Amha Selassie

Gelar "nəgusä nägäst", yang sering diterjemahkan secara dalam bahasa Inggris sebagai "Kaisar", berasal dari Mesopotamia kuno, kemudian digunakan oleh Raja Sembrouthes dari Kerajaan Aksum (sekitar 250 M). Namun, seorang peneliti : Yuri Kobishchanov menyebutkan tanggal penggunaan ini pada periode setelah kemenangan Persia atas Romawi pada 296–297.  Gelar ini secara resmi dipakai sejak pemerintahan Yekuno Amlak dan seterusnya, dengan demikian pejabat bawahan dan penguasa bagian anak sungai, terutama gubernur dari Gojjam, Welega, provinsi ke arah laut dan daerah Shewa, hanya menerima gelar kehormatan nəgus, sebuah kata untuk "raja."

Permaisuri Kaisar disebut sebagai egetege. Permaisuri Zewditu menggunakan bentuk feminin nəgəstä nägäst ("Ratu Raja") untuk menunjukkan bahwa ia memerintah dengan haknya sendiri, dan tidak menggunakan gelar ətege.

Daftar Kaisar EtiopiaSunting

Dinasti ZagweSunting

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Mara Takla Haymanot
menjadi Kaisar setelah mengalahkan Dil Na'od raja Aksum terakhir Zagwe  
Tatadim
anak dari Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe  
Jan Seyum
anak dari Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe  
Germa Seyum
anak dari Mara Takla Haymanot Zagwe  
Yemrehana Krestos
anak dari Germa Seyum Zagwe  
Kedus Harbe
anak dari Jan Seyum Zagwe  
Gebre Mesqel Lalibela
1189 1229 Lalibela dijadikan Ibukota. anak dari Jan Seyum Zagwe  
Na'akueto La'ab
anak dari Kedus Harbe Zagwe  
Yetbarak
anak dari Gebre Mesqel Lalibela Zagwe  
Mairari
Zagwe  
Harbai
Zagwe  

Dinasti SalomoSunting

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Yekuno Amlak
  • ይኵኖ አምላክ
Died 19 June 1285 10 August 1270 19 June 1285 Yekuno Amlak founds with help of Tekle Haymanot and Shewan troops the Solomonic Dynasty again Salomo  
Yagbe'u Seyon
  • ይግባ ጽዮን
Died 1294 19 June 1285 1294 Son of Yekuno Amlak Salomo  
Senfa Ared IV
  • ሰይፈ አርድ ፬ኛ
1294 1295 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Hezba Asgad
  • ህዝብ አስገድ
1295 1296 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Qedma Asgad
  • ቅድመ አስግድ
1296 1297 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Jin Asgad
  • ጅን አሰገድ
1297 1298 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Saba Asgad
  • ሳባ አሰገድ
1298 1299 Son of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Wedem Arad
  • ወደም አራድ
Died 1314 1299 1314 Brother of Yagbe'u Seyon Salomo  
Amda Seyon I
  • ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን
Died 1344 1314 1344 Son of Wedem Arad Salomo  
Newaya Krestos
  • ንዋየ ክርስቶስ
Died 1372 1344 1372 Son of Amda Seyon I Salomo  
Newaya Maryam
  • ንዋየ ማርያም
Died 1382 1372 1382 Son of Newaya Krestos Salomo  
Dawit I
  • ዳዊት
Died 6 October 1413 1382 6 October 1413 Son of Newaya Krestos Salomo  
Tewodros I
  • ቴዎድሮስ
Died 1414 1413 1414 Son of Dawit I Salomo  
Yeshaq I
  • ይሥሓቅ
Died 1429 1414 1429 Son of Dawit I Salomo  
Andreyas
  • አንድሬያስ
Died 1430 1429 1430 Son of Yeshaq I Salomo  
Takla Maryam
  • ተክለ ማርያም
Died 1433 1430 1433 Son of Yeshaq I Salomo  
Sarwe Iyasus
  • ሣርወ ኢየሱስ
Died 1433 1433 1433 Son of Takla Maryam Salomo  
Amda Iyasus
  • ዓምደ ኢየሱስ
Died 1434 1433 1434 Son of Takla Maryam Salomo  

Shewan lineSunting

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Zara Yaqob
  • ዘርአ ያዕቆብ
1399 – 26 August 1468
(aged 69)
19/20 June 1434 26 August 1468 Debre Birhan established as Capital.Son of Dawit I Solomonic  
Baeda Maryam I
  • በእደ ማርያም
1448 – 8 November 1478
(aged 30)
26 August 1468 8 November 1478 Son of Zara Yaqob Solomonic  
Eskender
  • እስክንድር
(1471-07-15)15 Juli 1471 – 7 Mei 1494(1494-05-07) (umur 22) 1478 7 May 1494 Son of Baeda Maryam I Solomonic  
Amda Seyon II
  • ዓምደ ፡ ጽዮን
kr. 1487 – 26 October 1494
(aged kr. 7)
1494 26 October 1494 Son of Eskender Solomonic  
Na'od
  • ናዖስ
Died 31 July 1508 1494 31 July 1508 Son of Baeda Maryam I Solomonic  
Dawit II
  • ዳዊት
1501 – 2 September 1540
(aged 39)
1508 2 September 1540 Son of Na'od Solomonic  
Gelawdewos
  • ገላውዴዎስ
1521/1522 – 23 March 1559
(aged 38–37)
3 September 1540 23 March 1559 Son of Dawit II Solomonic  
Menas
  • ሜናስ
Died 1 February 1563 1559 1 February 1563 Son of Dawit II Solomonic  
Sarsa Dengel
  • ሠረጸ ድንግል
1550 – 4 October 1597
(aged 47)
1563 4 October 1597 Son of Menas Solomonic  
Yaqob
  • ያዕቆብ
kr. 1590 – 10 March 1606 1597
1604
1603
10 March 1606
Son of Sarsa Dengel Solomonic  
Za Dengel
  • ዘድንግል
Died 24 October 1604 1603 24 October 1604 Nephew of Sarsa Dengel Solomonic  
Gondarine-Shewan lineSunting
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Susenyos I
  • ሱስንዮስ
1572 – 17 September 1632
(aged 60)
1606 17 September 1632 Gondar established as Capital. Grandson of Dawit II Solomonic  
Fasilides
  • ፋሲልደስ
1603 – 18 October 1667
(aged 64)
1632 18 October 1667 Fasilides palace complex built which would use the emperors as seat as far as Tewodros II. Son of Susenyos I Solomonic  
Yohannes I
  • ዮሐንስ
kr. 1640 – 19 July 1682
(aged kr. 42)
1667 19 July 1682 Son of Fasilides Solomonic  
Iyasu I
  • Iyasu the Great
  • ኢያሱ
1654 – 13 October 1706
(aged 52)
19 July 1682 13 October 1706 Son of Yohannes I Solomonic  
Yeshaq Iyasu
Died 1685 1685 1685 Claimed to be grandson of Susenyos I Solomonic  
Tekle Haymanot I
  • Tekle Haymanot the Cursed
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት
(1684-03-28)28 Maret 1684 – 30 Juni 1708(1708-06-30) (umur 24) 27 March 1706 30 June 1708 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic  
Amda Seyon
Died September 1707 September 1707 September 1707 Non-Dynastic  
Tewoflos
  • ቴዎፍሎስ
Died 14 October 1711 1 July 1708 14 October 1711 Son of Fasilides Solomonic  
Nebahne Yohannes
1709 July 1710 Non-Dynastic  
Yostos
  • ዮስቶስ
Died 1716 14 October 1711 19 February 1716 Grandson of Iyasu I Solomonic  
Dawit III
  • Dawit the Singer
  • ዳዊት
1695 – 18 May 1721
(aged 26)
8 February 1716 18 May 1721 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic  
Bakaffa
  • በካፋ
Died 19 September 1730 18 May 1721 19 September 1730 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic  
Iyasu II
  • ኢያሱ
(1723-10-21)21 Oktober 1723 – 27 Juni 1755(1755-06-27) (umur 31) 19 September 1730 27 June 1755 Son of Bakaffa Solomonic  
Hezqeyas
1736 1737 Solomonic  
Iyoas I
  • ኢዮአስ
kr. 1740 – 14 May 1769
(aged kr. 29)
27 June 1755 7 May 1769 Son of Iyasu II Solomonic  

Zemene MesafintSunting

Gondarine-Shewan lineSunting
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Yohannes II
  • ዮሓንስ
1699 – 18 October 1769
(aged 70)
7 May 1769 18 October 1769 Son of Iyasu I Solomonic  
Tekle Haymanot II
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት
1754 – 7 September 1777
(aged 23)
18 October 1769
December 1770
August 1770
13 April 1777
Son of Yohannes II Solomonic  
Susenyos II
  • ሱስንዮስ
Died kr. 1771 August 1770 December 1770 Possibly the illegitimate son of Iyasu II Solomonic  
Salomon II
  • ሣሎሞን
Died 1782 13 April 1777 20 July 1779 Son of Abeto Adigo Solomonic  
Tekle Giyorgis I
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ
kr. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged kr. 66)
20 July 1779
24 April 1788
January 1794
December 1795
4 January 1798
24 March 1800
8 February 1784
26 July 1789
15 April 1795
20 May 1796
20 May 1799
June 1800
Son of Yohannes II Solomonic  
Iyasu III
Died by 1810 16 February 1784 24 April 1788 Grandson of Iyasu II Solomonic  
Iyasu
Died May 1813 1787 1788 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic  
Baeda Maryam
1787 1788 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic  
Tekle Haymanot
Died before 1810 February 1788 1789 In opposition to Iyasu III Non-Dynastic  
Hezqeyas
Died 13 September 1813 26 July 1789 January 1794 Son of Iyasu III Solomonic  
Baeda Maryam II
1749 – 1833
(aged 84)
15 April 1795 December 1795 Possibly son of Salomon II Solomonic  
Salomon III
20 May 1796
20 May 1799
15 July 1797
15 July 1799
Son of Tekle Haymanot II Solomonic  
Yonas
Died May 1813 18 August 1797 4 January 1798 Grandson of Fasilides Solomonic  
Demetros
Died 1802 25 July 1799
June 1800
24 March 1800
June 1801
Son of Arqedewos Non-Dynastic  
Egwale Seyon
  • እጓለ ጽዮን
Died 12 June 1818 June 1801 12 June 1818 Son of Hezqeyas Solomonic  
Iyoas II
  • ኢዮአስ
Died 3 June 1821 14 June 1818 3 June 1821 Son of Hezqeyas Solomonic  
Gigar
  • ጊጋር
kr. 1745 – 26 November 1832
(aged kr. 87)
3 June 1821
April 1826
April 1826
18 June 1830
Possibly son of Iyasu II Possibly Solomonic  
Baeda Maryam III
April 1826 April 1826 Non-Dynastic  
Iyasu IV
  • ኢያሱ
18 June 1830 18 March 1832 Son of Salomon III Solomonic  
Gebre Krestos
  • ገብረ ክሪስቶስ
18 March 1832
1832
1832
8 June 1832
Allegedly a descendant of Fasilides Solomonic  
Sahle Dengel
1778 – 11 February 1855
(aged 77)
1832
October 1832
October 1841
1845
1851
1832
29 August 1840
1845
1850
11 February 1855
Brother of Gebre Krestos Solomonic  
Egwale Anbesa
1832 1832 Non-Dynastic  
Yohannes III
kr. 1797 – kr. 1873
(aged kr. 76)
30 August 1840
1845
1850
October 1841
1845
1851
Son of Tekle Giyorgis I Solomonic  

Gondarine-Qwaran dynastySunting

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Tewodros II
  • ቴዎድሮስ
kr. 1818 – 13 April 1868
(aged kr. 47)
11 February 1855 13 April 1868 Suicide on a British expidition, in the fort of Magdala. Son of Haile Giorgis Wolde Giorgis Claimed the Solomonic lineage later in his reign  

Zagwe dynastySunting

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Obed Gebru I
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ
Died 1873 11 June 1868 11 July 1871 Son of Wagshum Gebre Medhin Claimed the Zagwe lineage through his father[3]  

Solomonic dynastySunting

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Yohannes IV
  • ዮሓንስ
(1837-07-11)11 Juli 1837 – 10 Maret 1889(1889-03-10) (umur 51) 11 July 1871 10 March 1889 Mekelle established as Capital. Son of Dejazmatch Mercha Solomonic  
Shewan lineSunting
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Menelik II[4]
  • ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ
(1844-08-17)17 Agustus 1844 – 12 Desember 1913(1913-12-12) (umur 69) 10 March 1889 12 December 1913 Addis Ababa established as Capital. Son of Negus Haile Melekot Solomonic  
Iyasu V[5]
  • Lij Iyasu
  • ኢያሱ፭ኛ
(1895-02-04)4 Februari 1895 – 25 November 1935(1935-11-25) (umur 40) 12 December 1913 27 September 1916 Grandson of Menelik II Solomonic  
Zewditu I[6]
  • ዘውዲቱ
(1876-04-29)29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930(1930-04-02) (umur 53) 27 September 1916 2 April 1930 Daughter of Menelik II Solomonic  
Haile Selassie I
(1st reign)[7]
  • ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ
(1892-07-23)23 Juli 1892 – 27 Agustus 1975(1975-08-27) (umur 83) 2 April 1930 2 May 1936 Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael Solomonic  

Afrika Timur ItaliaSunting

Wangsa SavoySunting

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Victor Emmanuel III[8]
  • Vittorio Emanuele III
(1869-11-11)11 November 1869 – 28 Desember 1947(1947-12-28) (umur 78) 9 Mei 1936 5 Mei 1941 anak dari Umberto I Savoy  

Gubernur Jenderal Afrika Timur Italia:

Restorasi KekaisaranSunting

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Haile Selassie I
(jabatan ke 2)[9]
  • ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ
(1892-07-23)23 Juli 1892 – 27 Agustus 1975(1975-08-27) (umur 83) 5 Mei 1941 12 September 1974 Anak dari Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael Salomo  
Amha Selassie I[10][11]
(1916-07-27)27 Juli 1916 – 17 Februari 1997(1997-02-17) (umur 80) 12 September 1974 21 Maret 1975 Anak dari Haile Selassie I Salomo  

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ "The Ark of the Covenant: The Ethiopian Tradition". Diakses tanggal 2013-02-16. 
  2. ^ Nathaniel T. Kenney, "Ethiopian Adventure", National Geographic, 127 (1965), p. 555.
  3. ^ Also claimed the Solomonic lineage through his mother.
  4. ^ Previously King of Shewa from 1855 to 1856, and from 1865 to 1889. Ruled under the regency of Ras Betwoded Tessema Nadew from 1909 to 1911 and son of Gebru selassie I Lij Iyasu from 1911 to 1913.
  5. ^ Never officially crowned as Emperor. Deposed by nobility with the sanction of the Church.
  6. ^ Ruled under the regency of Ras Tafari Makonnen (future Emperor Haile Selassie I).
  7. ^ De facto ruler of the country as regent from 1916 to 1930. Crowned as King in 1928.
  8. ^ Unrecognized only by the United States and Soviet Union in 1940. Renounced title in 1943.
  9. ^ Briefly deposed during the 1960 coup d'état attempt.
  10. ^ Proclaimed Emperor by the Imperial Guards during the 1960 coup d'état attempt.
  11. ^ Designated "King" (not Emperor) by the Derg while out of the country, did not take throne.

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Pranala luarSunting

Templat:Silsilah keluarga Templat:Kepala negara dan pemerintah negara Afrika