Kösem Sultan

Kösem Sultan (Pengucapan bahasa Turki: [cøˈsem sulˈtan]) (nama lengkap Devletlu İsmetlu Haseki Mahpeyker Kösem Buyuk Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; ca. 1590 – 2 September 1651) – juga dikenal sebagai Mahpeyker Sultan[4] (Pengucapan bahasa Turki: [mahpejˈkeɾ sulˈtan]) – adalah salah satu wanita paling berkuasa dalam sejarah Utsmaniyah.[4][5][6][7] Sebagai permaisuri kesayangan dan istri sah dari Sultan Utsmaniyah Ahmed I (r. 1603–1617), ia meraih kekuasaan dan mempengaruhi politik Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah melalui suaminya, kemudian melalui putra-putranya Murad IV (r. 1623–1640) dan Ibrahim (r. 1640–1648), dan terakhir melalui cucunya Mehmed IV (r. 1648–1687). Ia menjadi Valide Sultan[4] serta Naib I Saltanat (Pemangku Sultan) ketika putra-putranya Murad IV dan Ibrahim serta cucunya Mehmed IV menjabat sebagai sultan Utsmaniyah selama lebih 28 tahun. Ia merupakan figur berpengaruh dan paling terkemuka pada masa Kesultanan Wanita. Setelah kematiannya, ia dikenal dengan nama "Valide-i Maktule" (ibu yang terbunuh), dan "Valide-i Șehide" (ibu yang menjadi martir).[8]

Kösem Sultan
كوسم سلطان
Kösem portrait (cropped).jpg
Naib-i-Sultanat Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
(periode pertama)
Perwalian10 September 1623 – 18 Mei 1632
PendahuluTidak ada
SultanMurad IV
(periode kedua)
Perwalian8 Agustus 1648 – 2 September 1651
PenerusTurhan Hatice Sultan
SultanMehmed IV
Valide Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Periode10 September 1623 – 2 September 1651
PendahuluHalime Sultan
PenerusTurhan Hatice Sultan
Haseki Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Periode26 November 1605 – 22 November 1617
PendahuluSafiye Sultan
PenerusAyşe Sultan
Informasi pribadi
KelahiranAnastasia
ca. 1589–1590
Tinos, Eyalet Morea, Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah[1]
(sekarang teritorial dari Yunani)
Kematian2 September 1651
Konstantinopel, Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Pemakaman
Fatih, Istanbul, di mausoleum suaminya Ahmed I
PasanganAhmed I
AnakŞehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Selim
Murad IV
Şehzade Kasim
Şehzade Suleiman
Ibrahim
Ayşe Sultan
Fatma Sultan
Gevherhan Sultan[2]
Hanzade Sultan[3]
Burnaz Atike Sultan
AgamaIslam, sebelumnya Kristen Ortodoks

BiografiSunting

   
Putra-putra Kösem Sultan yang menjadi Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah. Kiri: Murad IV (ca. 1612–1640) Kanan: Ibrahim (ca. 1615–1648)

Kehidupan awalSunting

Kösem berasal dari Yunani,[9][10][11][12] sebagai putri dari seorang pendeta di pulau Tinos.[13][14] Nama maiden-nya adalah Anastasia.[15] Ia dijadikan budak di Bosnia Utsmaniyah oleh beylerbey Bosnia,[14][16] dan dikirim ke Konstantinopel, ibu kota Utsmaniyah, pada usia lima belas tahun, ke harem Sultan Ahmed I setelah membatalkan pendidikannya di Konstantinopel. Setelah ia pindah ke Islam, namanya diubah menjadi Mahpeyker (Bulan Terbentuk), dan kemudian oleh Sultan Ahmed I menjadi Kösem.[12] Ia dipindahkan ke istana lama saat kematian Sultan Ahmed pada 1617, namun dikembalikan sebagai Valide Sultan, ketika putranya Murad IV naik tahta pada 1623.

AnakSunting

Putra[17]Sunting

  • Şehzade Mehmed (8 Maret 1605 – dibunuh pada 12 Januari 1621), Pangeran Mahkota sejak 1618.
  • Şehzade Selim (27 Juni 1611 – 27 Juli 1611).
  • Murad IV (26/27 Juli 1612 – 8 Februari 1640). Menjadi Sultan Utsmaniyah ke-17 dari 20 Januari 1623 sampai kematiannya.
  • Şehzade Suleiman (1613 – dibunuh pada 27 Juli 1635).
  • Şehzade Kasim (1614 – 17 Februari 1638), Pangeran Mahkota sejak 1635.
  • Ibrahim (5 November 1615 – 18 Agustus 1648). Menjadi Sultan Utsmaniyah ke-18 dari 9 Februari 1640 sampai 12 Agustus 1648.

Putri[17]Sunting

  • Ayşe Sultan (akhir 1605 – Mei 1657).
  • Fatma Sultan (1606 – 1670).
  • Gevherhan Sultan (1608 – 1660).
  • Hanzade Sultan (1609 – 21 September 1650)
  • Burnaz Atike Sultan (1614 – 1674).

FilmSunting

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ http://www.dr.com.tr/kitap/kara-kralice-kosem/demet-altinyeleklioglu/edebiyat/roman/turkiye-roman/urunno=0000000413240
  2. ^ Singh, Nagendra Kr (2000). International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties. Anmol Publications PVT. hlm. 423–424. ISBN 81-261-0403-1. Through her beauty and intelligence, Kösem Walide was especially attractive to Ahmed I, and drew ahead of more senior wives in the palace. She bore the sultan four sons – Murad, Süleyman, Ibrahim and Kasim – and three daughters – 'Ayşe, Fatma and Djawharkhan. These daughters she subsequently used to consolidate her political influence by strategic marriages to different viziers. 
  3. ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993), The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, hlm. 365, ISBN 0195086775 
  4. ^ a b c Douglas Arthur Howard, The official History of Turkey, Greenwood Press, isbn= 0-313-30708-3, p. 195
  5. ^ Bator, Robert, – Rothero, Chris (2000). Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Istanbul. Twenty-First Century Books. hlm. 42. ISBN 0-8225-3217-4. When such a son became sultan, his slave mother would become the most powerful woman in the Ottoman Empire. The Macedonian slave Kösem earned this distinction 
  6. ^ Akbar, M. J. (2002). The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. Routledge. hlm. 89. ISBN 0-415-28470-8. His mother, Valide Kosem, said to be the most powerful woman in the history of the dynasty, ruled in his name. 
  7. ^ Westheimer, Ruth Karola, – Kaplan, Steven (2001). Power. University of Virginia: Madison Books. hlm. 19. ISBN 1-56833-230-0. Maypeyker Sultan, better known as Kösem Sultan, is remembered by the Turks as the most powerful woman of her time 
  8. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2007). Famous Ottoman women. Avea. hlm. 129. 
  9. ^ al-Ayvansarayî, Hafiz Hüseyin  ; Crane, Howard (2000). The garden of the mosques : Hafiz Hüseyin al-Ayvansarayî's guide to the Muslim monuments of Ottoman Istanbul. Brill. hlm. 21. ISBN 90-04-11242-1. Kosem Valide Mahpeyker, known also simply as Kosem Sultan (c. 1589–1651), consort of Sultan Ahmed I and mother of Murad IV and Ibrahim I. Greek by birth, she exercised a decisive influence in the Ottoman state 
  10. ^ "Kosem Sultan (Ottoman sultana) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Diakses tanggal 11 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. hlm. 597. ISBN 90-04-07026-5. Kosem [qv] Mahpeyker, a woman of Greek origin (Anastasia, 1585–1651) 
  12. ^ a b Davis, Fanny (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. Scribner. hlm. 227–228. OCLC 636864790. Kosem was said to have been the daughter of a Greek priest of one of the Aegean islands, probably captured during one of the Ottoman-Venetian maritime campaigns. Her name was Anastasia but was changed after her conversion, no doubt on her admission to the palace, to Mâh-Peyker (Moon-Shaped), and later by Sultan Ahmet to Kosem 
  13. ^ Hogan, Christine (2006). The Veiled Lands: A Woman's Journey Into the Heart of the Islamic World. Macmillan Publishers Aus. hlm. 74. ISBN 9781405037013. 
  14. ^ a b Freely, John (1996). Istanbul: the imperial city. Viking. hlm. 215. ISBN 0-14-024461-1. Then around 1608 Ahmet found a new favourite, a Greek girl named Anastasia, who had been captured on the island of Tinos and sent as a slave to the Harem, where she took the name of Kosem 
  15. ^ Sonyel, Salâhi Ramadan (1993). Minorities and the destruction of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish Historical Society Printing House. hlm. 61. ISBN 975-16-0544-X. Many of the women of the harem were non-Muslim, for example Kösem Sultan was born in 1590 as Anastasia. The Governor of Bosnia had sent her to the Sultan. She was the wife of Ahmet I (1603–17), and the mother of Murat IV (1623–40), and of Ibrahim I (1640–8) 
  16. ^ Amila Buturović, İrvin Cemil Schick (2007). Women in the Ottoman Balkans: gender, culture and history. I.B.Tauris. hlm. 23. ISBN 1-84511-505-8. Kösem, who was of Greek origin. Orphaned very young, she found herself at the age of fifteen in the harem of Sultan Ahmed I. 
  17. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama :0
  18. ^ Hurriyet Daily News, 14 September 2010, Turkish screenwriter tells Ottoman history through one woman's life
  19. ^ IMDB, Mahpeyker - Kösem Sultan
Ottoman
Didahului oleh:
Safiye Sultan
Haseki Sultan
26 November 1605 – 22 November 1617
Diteruskan oleh:
Ayşe Sultan
Didahului oleh:
Halime Sultan
Valide Sultan
10 September 1623 – 3 September 1651
Diteruskan oleh:
Turhan Hatice Sultan
Didahului oleh:
Tidak ada
Naib-i-Sultanat
10 September 1623 – 18 Mei 1632 dan
8 Agustus 1648 – 3 September 1651
Diteruskan oleh:
Turhan Hatice Sultan

Templat:Dinasti Utsmaniyah