Dur-Sharrukin: Perbedaan antara revisi

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|longEW = E
|coordinates_display = title
|location = Khorsabad, [[:en:Nineveh Province|Provinsi Nineveh]], [[Irak]]
|region = [[Mesopotamia]]
|type = SettlementPemukiman
|part_of =
|length = {{convert|1760|m|abbr=on}}
|excavations = 1842–1844, 1852–1855 1928–1935, 1957
|archaeologists = [[Paul-Émile Botta]], [[Eugène Flandin]], Victor Place, [[Edward Chiera]], Gordon Loud, Hamilton Darby, Fuad Safar
|condition = RuinedReruntuhan
|ownership = PublicPublik
|management =
|public_access = Yes
 
'''Dur-Sharrukin''' ("Benteng Sargon"; {{lang-ar|دور شروكين}}), sekarang [[Khorsabad]], adalah ibukota [[Asyur]] pada zaman pemerintahan [[Sargon II]]. Khorsabad adalah desa di sebelah utara [[Irak]], 15 km sebelah timur laut [[Mosul]], yang sampai sekarang masih dihuni oleh orang [[Asyur]]. Kota besar ini seluruhnya dibangun dalam dekade sebelum tahun 706 SM. Setelah kematian mendadak Sargon dalam pertempuran, ibukota negara dipindahkan 20 km ke selatan, yaitu ke kota [[Niniwe]].
 
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==History Sejarah ==
[[File:Human headed winged bull profile.jpg|thumb|Lamassu foundyang duringditemukan Botta'spada excavationwaktu ekskavasi oleh Botta, nowsekarang indi theMuseum [[Louvre]] Museum.]]
[[File:Villes assyriennes.PNG|thumb|[[Mesopotamia]] inpada theperiode Neo-AssyrianAsyur periodBaru (placenama-nama tempat namesdalam in[[bahasa FrenchPerancis]])]]
Sargon II memerintah dari tahun 722 sampai 705&nbsp;SM. Pada tahun 717 SM (atau 713 SM), Sargon memerintahkan pembangunan kota-istana baru di titik pertemuan [[sungai Tigris]] dan [[:en:Great Zab|Greater Zab]]. Tuntutan kayu dan bahan-bahan bangunan lain serta pekerja bangunan, yang sampai datang dari tempat-tempat jauh di pantai [[Fenisia]], didokumentasikan dalam surat-surat Asyur pada zaman itu. Hutang para pekerja bangunan dihapus supaya menarik jumlah tenaga kerja yang cukup. Tanah di sekitar kota itu dijadikan ladang pertanian, terutama untuk menanam pohon zaitun guna meningkatkan kekurangan produksi minyak di Asyur. Kota besar ini seluruhnya dibangun pada dekade sebelum tahun 706&nbsp;SM, yaitu tahun dipindahkannya pusat pemerintahan ke Dur-Sharrukin, meskipun kota itu belum sepenuhnya selesai dibangun. Sargon terbunuh dalam pertempuran pada tahun 705 SM. Setelah kematiannya yang mendadak itu putra dan sekaligus penerusnya, [[Sanherib]], meninggalkan proyek itu dan memindahkan ibukota dan administrasinya ke kota [[Niniwe]], 20&nbsp;km ke arah selatan. Kota itu tidak pernah diselesaikan dan akhirnya ditinggalkan seabad kemudian ketika kekaisaran Asyur runtuh.
Sargon II ruled from 722 to 705&nbsp;BCE. In 717, Sargon ordered the construction of a new palace-city at the confluence of the [[Tigris]] and the [[Great Zab|Greater Zab]] rivers. The demands for timber and other materials and craftsmen, who came from as far as coastal [[Phoenicia]], are documented in contemporary Assyrian letters. The debts of construction workers were nullified in order to attract a sufficient labour force. The land in the environs of the town was taken under cultivation, and [[olive]] groves were planted to increase Assyria's deficient oil-production. The great city was entirely built in the decade preceding 706&nbsp;BCE, when the court moved to Dur-Sharrukin, although it was not completely finished yet. Sargon was killed during a battle in 705. After his unexpected death his son and successor [[Sennacherib]] abandoned the project, and relocated the capital with its administration to the city of [[Nineveh]], 20&nbsp;km south. The city was never completed and it was finally abandoned a century later when the Assyrian empire fell.
<ref>Marc Van De Mieroop, ''A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323&nbsp;BC'', (Wiley-Blackwell) 2006, ISBN 1-4051-4911-6</ref>
 
==Features Ciri-ciri ==
[[File:Victor Place Khorsabad.jpg|left|thumb|Plan of Dur-Sharrukin, 1867]]
[[File:S03 06 01 017 image 2340.jpg|thumbnail|Khorsabad brick, Assyria. Babylonian; Louvre Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection]]
TheKota townitu wasberbentuk ofpersegi rectangularpanjang layoutdan and measuredberukuran 1758.,6 byx 1635&nbsp;metres.meter, Themelingkupi encloseddaerah area comprisedseluas 3 squarekm kilometres,persegi oratau 288&nbsp;hectareshektar. ThePanjang lengthseluruh oftembok thekota walls wasadalah 16280 Assyrianunit unitsAsyur, whichyang correspondedsesuai todengan thenilai numericalhuruf-huruf value ofnama "Sargon's name".{{Citation needed|date=MayTembok 2013}}kota Thedibangun citykuat walls were massive anddengan 157 towersmenara protecteduntuk itsmelindungi sidessisi-sisinya. Seven gatesTujuh enteredgerbang thekota citydibuat fromdari allsegala directionsarah. ASuatu walledteras terracebertembok containedmemuat templeskuil anddan the royal palaceistana. TheKuil mainutama templesdipersembahkan werekepada dedicated to the godsdewa-dewa [[Nabu]], [[Shamash]] anddan [[:en:Sin (mythology)|Sin]], whilesementara [[Adad]], [[Ningal]] anddan [[Ninurta]] hadmempuyai smallerkuil-kuil yang lebih shrineskecil. ASebuah templemenara towerkuil, [[ziqqurat]], wasjuga also constructeddibangun. TheIstana palaceitu wasdihiasi adorneddengan withpatung-patung sculpturesdan andukiran-ukiran walltembok. reliefs,Gerbang-gerbangnya anddiapit theoleh gatespatung-patung werebanteng flanked with winged-bullbersayap ''[[shedu]]'' statuesdengan weighingberat up tomencapai 40&nbsp;tonston. Sargon supposedly lost atrupanya leastkehilangan onesatu ofdari thesebanteng wingedbersayap bullsitu indi thedalam riversungai.
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In addition to the great city, there was a royal hunting park and a garden that included "all the aromatic plants of Hatti<ref>''Hatti'': in this context, all the areas to the west of the Euphrates controlled by [[Neo-Hittite]] kingdoms.</ref> and the fruit-trees of every mountain", a "record of power and conquest", as [[Robin Lane Fox]] has observed.<ref>D.D. Luckenbill, ''Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia'', vol II:242, quoted in Robin Lane Fox, ''Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer'' 2008, pp26f.</ref> Surviving correspondence mentions the moving of thousands of young fruit trees, [[quince]]s, [[almond]]s, [[apple]]s and [[medlar]]s.<ref>Lane Fox 2008:27; texts are in Luckenbill 1927:II.</ref>
<blockquote>"On the central canal of Sargon's garden stood a pillared pleasure-pavilion which looked up to a great topographic creation: a man-made Garden Mound. This Mound was planted with [[Cedrus|cedars]] and [[cypress]]es and was modelled after a foreign landscape, the [[Nur Mountains|Amanus mountains]] in north Syria, which had so amazed the Assyrian kings. In their flat palace-gardens they built a replica of what they had encountered."<ref>Lane Fox 2008:27, noting D. Stronach, "The Garden as a political statement: some case-studies from the Near East in the first millennium BC", ''Bulletin of the Asia Institute'' '''4''' (1990:171-80). The garden mount first documented at Dur-Sharrukin was to have a long career in the [[history of gardening]].</ref></blockquote>